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Michael R. McGuigan, Glenn A. Wright and Steven J. Fleck

The use of strength training designed to increase underlying strength and power qualities in elite athletes in an attempt to improve athletic performance is commonplace. Although the extent to which strength and power are important to sports performance may vary depending on the activity, the associations between these qualities and performance have been well documented in the literature. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of strength training research to determine if it really helps improve athletic performance. While there is a need for more research with elite athletes to investigate the relationship between strength training and athletic performance, there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation in team sports.

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Simone Pettigrew, Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Anne-Marie Hill, Liz Bainbridge, Gill Lewin, Phil Airey and Keith Hill

Worldwide, the facilitation of healthy aging is a policy priority in an attempt to manage the substantial growth in health system costs forecast to result from population aging ( World Health Organization, 2015 ). Physical activity is critical to healthy aging, and strength training is a

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Maja Zamoscinska, Irene R. Faber and Dirk Büsch

end the necessary treatment. 17 , 18 Therefore, it seems sensible to search for an alternative solution to treat reduced BMD with less or without negative side effects. One of the proposed alternatives to supplements/medicine is strength training. 9 , 19 Strength training indeed is suggested to

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet and Laurent Bosquet

described as a percentage of VO 2 max or maximal heart rate. 3 , 4 In recent years, however, convincing evidence has emerged indicating that strength training may also have a positive impact on middle- and long-distance performance (running, cycling, cross-country skiing) and its key determinants for

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Mehrez Hammami, Nawel Gaamouri, Gaith Aloui, Roy J. Shephard and Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly

strength training program (CSTP) alternates high-load weight training with plyometric exercises, 8 the idea being to use the slow heavy movements to recruit the nervous system maximally and to take advantage of that recruitment in subsequent fast exercise. Ronnestad et al 9 found that plyometric training

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

time. Many studies investigating the effects of heavy weights and explosive strength have shown improved OTBS performance with increased muscular strength or power also. 19 , 26 – 30 Therefore, strength training seems to be an efficient and practical method for enhancing OTBS performance. Some

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Hayden J. Pritchard, Matthew J. Barnes, Robin J. Stewart, Justin W. Keogh and Michael R. McGuigan

tapering strategy. 7 , 10 – 12 Häkkinen et al 7 demonstrated that a 1-week volume-reduced (by 50%) taper following 2 weeks of strength training was able to improve maximal force and electromyographic activity in the 5 strongest participants with no changes observed in the remaining 5 participants. Gibala

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Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann and Christoph Clephas

It is well accepted that regular strength training can improve the performance of endurance athletes in sports such as cycling, endurance running, cross-country skiing, and swimming. 1 These benefits are typically brought about by improvements in neuromuscular efficiency, characterized by shifts

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert and Kevin G. Thompson

training stimulus. During heavy resistance training, interset rest periods are one such variable that aims to provide the athlete with sufficient rest to successfully complete the subsequent repetitions. 10 For heavy strength training, rest periods of 3 to 5 minutes are commonly prescribed 11 , 12 as a

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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

physical activity guidelines for older people recommend 30 min/day of moderate-intensity physical activity, such as walking (puffing pace), cycling, and swimming, and a minimum of two sessions a week of strength training (ST) and three sessions of balance training, such as balance-specific training or Tai