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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

effectiveness of integrating exercise in treatment. Exercise has been shown to reinforce weight gain and increase body mass index (BMI) in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and supervised aerobic and strength training exercises have been shown to effectively reduce eating disorder symptoms ( Calogero

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Edgar R. Vieira, Ruth Tappen, Sareen S. Gropper, Maria T. Severi, Gabriella Engstrom, Marcio R. de Oliveira, Alexandre C. Barbosa and Rubens A. da Silva

decreased range of motion ( Guccione, Avers, & Wong, 2011 ; van Dieën, Pijnappels, & Bobbert, 2005 ). Aging-related changes in walking and strength are associated with functional impairment, injury, frailty, and falls ( Grabiner, Biswas, & Grabiner, 2001 ; Montero-Odasso et al., 2005 ). Falls are the most

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Jack R. Engsberg, Sandy A. Ross, Kevin W. Hollander and T.S. Park

Hip spasticity and strength from 44 children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 44 children with able bodies (AB) were compared. For spasticity, a KinCom dynamometer abducted the passive hip at 4 different speeds and recorded the resistive adductor torques. Work values for the torque-angle data were calculated at each speed. Linear regression derived the slope for the line of best fit for the work-velocity data to determine the spasticity measure. For strength, the KinCom rotated the hip from maximum adduction to maximum abduction at a speed of 10°/s while the child performed a maximum abduction concentric contraction. Tests were reversed to record maximum adduction. Maximum torques and work by the abductors and adductors were calculated. Spasticity in the adductors for the CP group was significantly greater than values recorded for the AB group. All strength measures were significantly less than the AB group. Results provide objective information, quantifying hip spasticity and strength in children with CP.

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Joe Nocera, Mack Rubley, William Holcomb and Mark Guadagnoli

Context:

There is limited information on the effects of throwing on shoulder proprioception and strength.

Objective:

Examine shoulder proprioception and strength following throwing.

Design:

2x3 mixed-subject design.

Setting:

Research laboratory and outdoor facility.

Participants:

23 male college students (age = 22 ± 2.9yr, ht = 178 ± 11.3cm, wt = 72 ± 7.7kg, 22 right-handed 1 left-handed).

Intervention:

Subjects were pretested for proprioception, measured by active reproduction of passive positioning (ARPP). Strength was quantified using 1RM and an average peak torque at 120º/sec for internal and external shoulder rotation. Following pretesting, subjects (excluding control) completed 75 throws at 75% maximum immediately followed by posttesting.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pre and post ARPP absolute error and strength changes.

Results:

Significant difference in the pre and posttest ARPP values for throwing groups but no difference for the control group. There was no significant difference from pre to post on the strength tests for any groups.

Conclusion:

Results indicate that repetitive throwing affects proprioception while not affecting strength.

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Jenna M. Kraska, Michael W. Ramsey, G. Gregory Haff, Nate Fethke, William A. Sands, Margaret E. Stone and Michael H. Stone

Purpose:

To investigate the relationship between maximum strength and differences in jump height during weighted and unweighted (body weight) static (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ).

Methods:

Sixty-three collegiate athletes (mean ± SD; age= 19.9 ± 1.3 y; body mass = 72.9 ± 19.6 kg; height = 172.8 ± 7.7 cm) performed two trials of the SJ and CMJ with 0 kg and 20 kg on a force plate; and two trials of mid-thigh isometric clean pulls in a custom rack over a force plate (1000-Hz sampling). Jump height (JH) was calculated from fight time. Force-time curve analyses determined the following: isometric peak force (IPF), isometric force (IF) at 50, 90, and 250 ms, and isometric rates of force development (IRFD). Absolute and allometric scaled forces, [absolute force/(body mass0.67)], were used in correlations.

Results:

IPF, IRFD, F50a, F50, F90, and F250 showed moderate/strong correlations with SJ and CMJ height percent decrease from 0 to 20 kg. IPFa and F250a showed weak/moderate correlations with percent height decrease. Comparing strongest (n = 6) to weakest (n = 6): t tests revealed that stronger athletes (IPFa) performed superior to weaker athletes.

Conclusion:

Data indicate the ability to produce higher peak and instantaneous forces and IRFD is related to JH and to smaller differences between weighted and unweighted jump heights. Stronger athletes jump higher and show smaller decrements in JH with load. A weighted jump may be a practical method of assessing relative strength levels.

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Cesar Marius Meylan, John Cronin, Will G. Hopkins and Jonathan Oliver

Adjustment for body mass and maturation of strength, power, and velocity measures of young athletes is important for talent development. Seventy-four youth male athletes performed a ballistic leg press test at five loads relative to body mass. The data were analyzed in maturity groups based on years from peak height velocity: −2.5 to −0.9 y (n = 29); −1.0 to 0.4 y (n = 28); and 0.5 to 2.0 y (n = 16). Allometric scaling factors representing percent difference in performance per percent difference in body mass were derived by linear regression of log-transformed variables, which also permitted adjustment of performance for body mass. Standardized differences between groups were assessed via magnitude-based inference. Strength and power measures showed a greater dependency on body mass than velocity-related variables (scaling factors of 0.56–0.85 vs. 0.42–0.14%/%), but even after adjustment for body mass most differences in strength and power were substantial (7–44%). In conclusion, increases in strength and power with maturation are due only partly to increases in body mass. Such increases, along with appropriate adjustment for body mass, need to be taken into account when comparing performance of maturing athletes.

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Robert Topp, Lee Winchester, Amber M. Mink, Jeremiah S. Kaufman and Dean E. Jacks

Context:

Soft-tissue injuries are commonly treated with ice or menthol gels. Few studies have compared the effects of these treatments on blood flow and muscle strength.

Objective:

To compare blood flow and muscle strength in the forearm after an application of ice or menthol gel or no treatment.

Design:

Repeated-measures design in which blood-flow and muscle-strength data were collected from subjects under 3 treatment conditions.

Setting:

Exercise physiology laboratory.

Participants:

17 healthy adults with no impediment to the blood flow or strength in their right arm, recruited through word of mouth.

Intervention:

Three separate treatment conditions were randomly applied topically to the right forearm: no treatment, 0.5 kg of ice, or 3.5 mL of 3.5% menthol gel. To avoid injury ice was only applied for 20 min.

Main Outcome Measures:

At each data-collection session blood flow (mL/min) of the right radial artery was determined at baseline before any treatment and then at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after treatment using Doppler ultrasound. Muscle strength was assessed as maximum isokinetic flexion and extension of the wrist at 30°/s 20, 25, and 30 min after treatment.

Results:

The menthol gel reduced (−42%, P < .05) blood flow in the radial artery 5 min after application but not at 10, 15, or 20 min after application. Ice reduced (−48%, P < .05) blood flow in the radial artery only after 20 min of application. After 15 min of the control condition blood flow increased (83%, P < .05) from baseline measures. After the removal of ice, wrist-extension strength did not increase per repeated strength assessment as it did during the control condition (9−11%, P < .05) and menthol-gel intervention (8%, P < .05).

Conclusions:

Menthol has a fast-acting, short-lived effect of reducing blood flow. Ice reduces blood flow after a prolonged duration. Muscle strength appears to be inhibited after ice application.

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Elisa Marques, Joana Carvalho, Andreia Pizarro, Flávia Wanderlay and Jorge Mota

We examined the relationship among objective measures of body composition, lower extremity strength, physical activity, and walking performance and determined whether this interaction differed according to walking ability. Participants were 126 adults ages 60–91 yr. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the 30-s chair stand test (30sCST), appendicular lean mass index (aLMI), body mass index, and age were independent contributors to walking performance, explaining 44.3% of the variance. For slower walkers, appendicular fat mass index (aFMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 30sCST, and aLMI (r 2 = .49, p < .001) largely explained variance in walking performance. For faster walkers, aFMI and aLMI explained 31.4% (p < .001) of the variance. These data suggest that both fat and lean mass are associated with walking performance in higher- and lower-functioning older adults, whereas MPVA and muscle strength influence walking ability only among lower-functioning older adults.

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Thomas M. Lundin, Dennis W. Jahnigen and Mark D. Grabiner

When rising from a chair, older adults have been reported to use a strategy in which the trunk is flexed to a greater extent than young adults, a strategy attributed by some to concerns with the postural stability demands of the task. This study determined the extent to which maximum trunk flexion angle during a self-paced sit-to-stand from a standardized initial position was influenced by the maximum isometric strength of the knee and trunk/hip extensor muscles in older adults. The hypothesis was that the larger maximum trunk flexion angle attained by older adults when rising from a chair is related to the maximum isometric strength of the knee and trunk-hip extensor muscles. To test this hypothesis, maximum voluntary isometric strength of the trunk extensor and knee extensor muscles of 28 older men and women were measured. Trunk motion during the sit-to-stand by these adults was men assessed using motion analysis. Multiple regression was used to characterize the relationship between the maximum trunk flexion angle and maximum isometric knee extensor and trunk extensor muscle strength. The derived relationship was neither statistically significant nor biomechanically meaningful. This result suggests that the trunk flexion angle attained by healthy older adults when rising from a chair from a standardized initial position is not influenced by knee extension and trunk-hip extension strength as measured in the present study.

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Darren G. Burke, Philip D. Chilibeck, K. Shawn Davison, Darren C. Candow, Jon Farthing and Truis Smith-Palmer

Our purpose was to assess muscular adaptations during 6 weeks of resistance training in 36 males randomly assigned to supplementation with whey protein (W; 1.2 g/kg/day), whey protein and creatine monohydrate (WC; 0.1 g/kg/day), or placebo (P; 1.2 g/kg/day maltodextrin). Measures included lean tissue mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bench press and squat strength (1-repetition maximum), and knee extension/flexion peak torque. Lean tissue mass increased to a greater extent with training in WC compared to the other groups, and in the W compared to the P group (p < .05). Bench press strength increased to a greater extent for WC compared to W and P (p < .05). Knee extension peak torque increased with training for WC and W (p < .05), but not for P. All other measures increased to a similar extent across groups. Continued training without supplementation for an additional 6 weeks resulted in maintenance of strength and lean tissue mass in all groups. Males that supplemented with whey protein while resistance training demonstrated greater improvement in knee extension peak torque and lean tissue mass than males engaged in training alone. Males that supplemented with a combination of whey protein and creatine had greater increases in lean tissue mass and bench press than those who supplemented with only whey protein or placebo. However, not all strength measures were improved with supplementation, since subjects who supplemented with creatine and/or whey protein had similar increases in squat strength and knee flexion peak torque compared to subjects who received placebo.