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Steven R. Bray, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Jennifer Woodgate

Self-regulation consumes a form of strength or energy. The authors investigated aftereffects of self-regulation depletion on muscle-endurance performance in older adults. Participants (N = 61, mean age = 71) were randomized to a self-regulation-depletion or control group and completed 2 muscle-endurance performance tasks involving isometric handgrip squeezing that were separated by a cognitive-depletion task. The depletion group showed greater deterioration of muscle-endurance performance than controls, F(1, 59) = 7.31, p = .009. Results are comparable to those of younger adults in a similar study and support Baumeister et al.’s limited-strength model. Self-regulation may contribute to central-nervous-system fatigue; however, biological processes may allow aging muscle to offset depletion of self-regulatory resources affecting muscle-endurance performance.

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Jeffrey D. Graham and Steven R. Bray

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.

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Desmond McEwan, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, and Steven R. Bray

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depleted self-control strength on skill-based sports task performance. Sixty-two participants completed the following: a baseline dart-tossing task (20 tosses), with measures of accuracy, reaction time, and myoelectrical activity of the arms taken throughout; a self-control depletion (experimental) or a nondepletion (control) manipulation; and a second round of dart tossing. As hypothesized, participants in the experimental condition had poorer mean accuracy at Round 2 than control condition participants, and a significant decline in accuracy from Round 1 to Round 2. Experimental condition participants also demonstrated poorer consistency in accuracy compared with control condition participants at Round 2 and a significant deterioration in consistency from Round 1 to Round 2. In addition, consistency in reaction time improved significantly for the control group but not for the experimental group. The results of this study provide evidence that ego depletion effects occur in the performance of a skill-based sports task.

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Roy David Samuel, Guy Matzkin, Saar Gal, and Chris Englert

in the level of temporarily available self-control, meaning that under certain circumstances, self-control lapses are more likely than in other situations. According to the strength model of self-control ( Baumeister et al., 1998 ), individuals only possess a limited amount of self-control strength

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Chris Englert, Kris Zwemmer, Alex Bertrams, and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

In the current study we investigated whether ego depletion negatively affects attention regulation under pressure in sports by assessing participants’ dart throwing performance and accompanying gaze behavior. According to the strength model of self-control, the most important aspect of self-control is attention regulation. Because higher levels of state anxiety are associated with impaired attention regulation, we chose a mixed design with ego depletion (yes vs. no) as between-subjects and anxiety level (high vs. low) as within-subjects factor. Participants performed a perceptual-motor task requiring selective attention, namely, dart throwing. In line with our expectations, depleted participants in the high-anxiety condition performed worse and displayed a shorter final fixation on bull’s eye, demonstrating that when one’s self-control strength is depleted, attention regulation under pressure cannot be maintained. This is the first study that directly supports the general assumption that ego depletion is a major factor in influencing attention regulation under pressure.

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Jón Gregersen, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Evangelos Galanis, Nikos Comoutos, and Athanasios Papaioannou

-control act, seems to be dependent on the strength of self-control that is available for the individual in the specific moment ( Baumeister et al., 1998 ). One theoretical model explaining the nature of self-control is the strength model of self-control ( Baumeister, Vohs, & Tice, 2007 ), which proposes that

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

-control is the strength model ( Baumeister & Vohs, 2016 ). The strength model posits that self-control is dependent upon energetic resources, and as resources are depleted, or consumed, people’s abilities to exert self-control diminish for a period of time until replenished with rest (see Muraven

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Chiharu Iwasaka, Tsubasa Mitsutake, and Etsuo Horikawa

. Model 1: nonadjusted. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index. Model 3: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, grip strength. Model 4: adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, grip strength, pain of leg (with/without). Tables  3 and 4 show a multivariate linear regression model that included

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Gro Jordalen, Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre, Natalie Durand-Bush, and Andreas Ivarsson

strength model ( Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998 ; Baumeister et al., 2007 ) has conceptually informed the majority of research on self-control. This model is based on the notion that both state and trait self-control depend on limited resources and become temporarily impaired when used

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Leonardo S. Fortes, Maria E.C. Ferreira, Heloiana Faro, Eduardo M. Penna, and Sebastião S. Almeida

perceived effort and a decrease in motivation and engagement level in the activities undertaken, and consequently reduced performance ( McMorris, 2020 ). However, there are other frameworks and pathways which could also explain mental fatigue. According to the self-control strength model ( Baumeister et