Grounded in Lazarus’s (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.
Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry, and Luis Calmeiro
Jon Hammermeister and Damon Burton
This exploratory investigation examined the value of using Lazarus’ (1991; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) stress model, (i.e., primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, and perceived coping) to identify the antecedents of cognitive and somatic state anxiety for endurance athletes. This study also assessed whether endurance athletes with qualitatively similar levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety demonstrate differential antecedent profiles. Participants were 175 triathletes, 70 distance runners, and 70 cyclists who completed stress-related questionnaires 1-2 days prior to competition and the CSAI-2 approximately one hour before competing. Results revealed that all three components of Lazarus’ stress model predicted both cognitive and somatic state anxiety better than did individual model components. Moreover, perceived threat accounted for a greater percentage of variance in cognitive and somatic anxiety than did perceived control or coping resources. Cluster analyses revealed distinct antecedent profiles for high, moderate, low, and “repressed” anxious endurance athletes, suggesting that multiple antecedent profiles may exist for highly anxious athletes in endurance sports.
Carla Meijen, Alister McCormick, Paul A. Anstiss, and Samuele M. Marcora
athletes. In addition to performance satisfaction and stress appraisals ( Lane, Devonport, et al., 2016 ), the experience of endurance athletes can also be influenced by self-efficacy ( Anstiss et al., 2018 ) and coping behaviors ( Schumacher et al., 2016 ; Zepp, 2016 ). In summary, there is considerable
Denise M. Hill, Nic Matthews, and Ruth Senior
This study used qualitative methods to explore the stressors, appraisal mechanism, emotional response, and effective/ineffective coping strategies experienced by elite rugby union referees during pressurized performances. Participants included seven male rugby union referees from the United Kingdom (Mage = 27.85, SD = 4.56) who had been officiating as full-time professionals for between 1 and 16 years (M = 4.85, SD = 5.42). Data revealed that the referees encountered a number of stressors, which were appraised initially as a ‘threat’, and elicited negatively-toned emotions. The referees were able to maintain performance standards under pressure by adopting proactive, problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies which managed effectively the stressors and their emotions. However, the use of avoidance-coping, reactive control, and informal impression management were perceived as ineffective coping strategies, and associated with poor performance and choking. Recommendations are offered to inform the psychological skills training of rugby union referees.
Betty C. Kelley and Timothy Baghurst
The Coaching Issues Survey (CIS) was developed to measure sport/coaching-specific issues that may produce stress within the coaching role and situation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure with a sample of collegiate basketball coaches. The four separate, but related subscales of Win-Loss, Time-Role, Program-Success, and Athlete-Concerns demonstrated high internal consistency and good stability over time. The CIS was sensitive to gender differences and paralleled differences noted with stress and burnout measures. The CIS was quite predictive of stress appraisal and slightly predictive of burnout, providing evidence for construct validity as a personal/situational variable within the current theoretical conceptualizations of the stress and burnout process. The initial reliability and validity evidence suggests that the CIS can be a valuable measure of potentially problematic issues for coaches, facilitating the investigation of stress and burnout in coaching.
Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, and George M. Balanos
The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (M age = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge and threat scripts (p < .05). Although there were no differences in physiological response intensities for both stress-evoking scripts, these responses, along with anxiety symptoms, were interpreted as facilitative during the challenge script and debilitative during the threat script. Results support using imagery to facilitate adaptive stress appraisal.
Aodhagán Conlon, Rachel Arnold, Ezio Preatoni, and Lee J. Moore
( extremely ) for the two items assessing intensity, and −3 ( very negative ) to +3 ( very positive ) for the two items assessing direction. This scale has demonstrated good validity ( Thomas et al., 2002 ) and has been used in previous research (e.g., Gray et al., 2013 ). Stress Appraisal Stress appraisals
Teri J. Hepler and Matt Andre
measures, two subjective self-report measures were also used to assess stress. Prior to performing the stress task, participants’ stress appraisal of the task was assessed. This measure comprised two items: “How stressful do you expect the upcoming task to be?” (primary) and “How able are you to cope with
Maja Gunhild Olsen, Jan Arvid Haugan, Maria Hrozanova, and Frode Moen
demanding environment. Didymus ( 2017 ) Olympic and international level sports coaches’ experiences of stressors, appraisals, and coping. Using the cognitive–motivational–relational theory of stress and emotions as a lens to explore Olympic and international level coaches’ psychological stress. In
Andrew Evans, Robert Morris, Jamie Barker, Tom Johnson, Zoe Brenan, and Ben Warner
, and performance outcomes. Akin to such models of stress appraisal, the ACTM ( Stambulova, 2003 ) asserts that coping with transitional demands stems from a dynamic balance between transitional barriers and available resources/support mechanisms. Successful (or adaptive) transitions are made when