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Patrice Rougier, Cyril Burdet, and Nicolas Genthon

To assess whether prior stretching of a muscle can induce improved postural control, 15 healthy adults stood still upright with their eyes closed before and after a series of bilateral stretches of the triceps surae muscles. The analysis focused on the center of pressure (CP) and the vertical projection of the center of gravity (CGv) trajectories and their difference (CP – CGv). The prolonged stretching induced a forward shift of the mean position of the CGv. The frequency analysis showed a constancy of the amplitudes of both basic movements whereas an increased mean power frequency was seen for the CP – CGv movements. A fractional Brownian motion modeling of the trajectories indicates shortest time intervals and lower covered distances by the CGv before a change in its control occurs along the antero-posterior axis. This reorganization is thought to be a result of improved body movement detection, which allows postural control over the longest time intervals to be triggered more rapidly.

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Warren B. Young

Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-ups before training and competition. A growing amount of research, however, has demonstrated that SS can impair muscle performance, leading to a reevaluation of optimal warm-up protocols. This commentary discusses many of the methodological issues that can influence conclusions about the acute effects of SS on performance. One difficulty in interpreting the literature is the lack of control or communication about the volume and intensity of the various stretching treatments used. Another major issue is the failure of many researchers to evaluate SS as it is used in practice, particularly the interaction with the other general and sport-specific components of the warm-up. Acute warm-up effects on performance should be considered in conjunction with potential effects on injury prevention. Future directions in research include optimizing general and sport-specific warm-ups, time course of physiological and performance effects, and individualization of warm-ups according to fitness and skill level.

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Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai, and Masahiro Iwata

muscle imbalances, which predisposes to muscle injuries, 4 patellar tendinopathy, and patellofemoral pain, 5 and facilitates the development of low back pain. 6 Therefore, obtaining detailed information about the effects of stretching on the hamstring muscles is an important issue that could lead to

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Bethany L. Anderson, Rod A. Harter, and James L. Farnsworth II

Clinical Scenario Dynamic stretching and foam rolling are common practices employed by sports medicine and strength and conditioning professionals to enhance athletic performance. 1 , 2 More commonly, dynamic stretching is used as a warm-up prior to physical activity, while foam rolling is

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Omid Kazemi, Amir Letafatkar, and Paulo H. Marchetti

Stretching techniques before physical activity are common practices aimed at increasing the flexibility of athletes, and static and dynamic stretching are the most common techniques used toward this goal. 1 Scientific evidence have shown that static stretching may temporarily reduce force and power

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Key Points ▸ Passive stretching protocols are used either in the short term or following a 4–6-week intervention. ▸ There is a moderate level of evidence supporting the use of passive stretching for overhead athletes. ▸ The strength of recommendation is grade B due to inconsistent evidence

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Landon Lempke, Rebecca Wilkinson, Caitlin Murray, and Justin Stanek

Clinical Scenario Stretching exercises are commonly prescribed during warm-up and cool-down protocols, strength and conditioning training programs, and rehabilitation programs. Stretching is applied for the purposes of injury prevention, increasing joint range of motion (ROM), and increasing muscle

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Frédéric Dierick, Fabien Buisseret, Loreda Filiputti, and Nathalie Roussel

predecessors to practice their art. Performing muscle stretching before physical activity is a common practice for both professional and recreational dancers with the belief to improve mobility and maintain good flexibility. By definition, flexibility include both static and dynamic components ( Gleim & McHugh

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Scott W. Cheatham and Russell Baker

body part using a 50% overlapping (distal to proximal) pattern with a relative elongation or stretch force range of 50% to 90% of the band length. 1 After application, the client performs up to a 2-minute “tissue flossing” intervention that may include various active and passive movements of the

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

Acute static stretching (ASS) is well known in changing physical performance and incidence rate of injuries especially in sports field, by increasing joint range of motion (ROM) through the reduction of musculotendinous stiffness and increase of flexibility, even after short-duration stretches (30