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Che-Hsiu Chen, Tsun-Shun Huang, Huei-Ming Chai, Mei-Hwa Jan and Jiu-Jenq Lin

Context:

Recent studies have shown that the static stretch (SS) may adversely affect leg-muscle performance.

Objectives:

The authors examined the short-term effects of 2 stretching exercises on hamstrings muscle before and after exercise.

Design:

Crossover.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

9 healthy, physically active men.

Interventions:

There were 3 protocols in a randomized order with a 7-d interval: nonstretching (CON protocol), hamstrings static stretching (SS) with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), and SS with kinesio-taping application on the hamstrings.

Main Outcome Measures:

Outcome measures included first-felt and maximum tolerant-felt range of motion (FROM and TROM), maximal knee-flexion peak torque (PT) at 180°/s, and hamstrings muscle stiffness.

Results:

Groups were not different at prestretching in terms of hamstrings flexibility, PT, and muscle stiffness. At poststretching, both stretching protocols showed significant increases in FROM and TROM (P < .05). Stiffer hamstrings muscle and decreased PT were found in both SS+PNF and CON protocols (P < .05). However, there was no significant difference in the SS+Taping protocol (P > .05).

Conclusion:

The stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, but after exercise hamstrings peak torque is diminished in the SS+PNF but not in the SS+Taping group. This means that SS+Taping can prevent negative results from exercise, which may prevent muscle injury.

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Hsuan Su, Nai-Jen Chang, Wen-Lan Wu, Lan-Yuen Guo and I-Hua Chu

Context:

Foam rolling has been proposed to improve muscle function, performance, and joint range of motion (ROM). However, whether a foam rolling protocol can be adopted as a warm-up to improve flexibility and muscle strength is unclear.

Objectives:

To examine and compare the acute effects of foam rolling, static stretching, and dynamic stretching used as part of a warm-up on flexibility and muscle strength of knee flexion and extension.

Design:

Crossover study.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

15 male and 15 female college students (age 21.43 ± 1.48 y, weight 65.13 ± 12.29 kg, height 166.90 ± 6.99 cm).

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic peak torque was measured during knee extension and flexion at an angular velocity of 60°/second. Flexibility of the quadriceps was assessed by the modified Thomas test, while flexibility of the hamstrings was assessed using the sit-and-reach test. The 3 interventions were performed by all participants in random order on 3 days separated by 48–72 hours.

Results:

The flexibility test scores improved significantly more after foam rolling as compared with static and dynamic stretching. With regard to muscle strength, only knee extension peak torque (pre vs. postintervention) improved significantly after the dynamic stretching and foam rolling, but not after static stretching. Knee flexion peak torque remained unchanged.

Conclusions:

Foam rolling is more effective than static and dynamic stretching in acutely increasing flexibility of the quadriceps and hamstrings without hampering muscle strength, and may be recommended as part of a warm-up in healthy young adults.

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Elif Turgut, Irem Duzgun and Gul Baltaci

-stretch for pectoralis minor out of several stretching exercises. 9 Although there is limited evidence on effectiveness in a symptomatic population, stretching exercise programs, including anterior or posterior shoulder stretching, are usually recommended by guidelines for shoulder rehabilitation. 10 , 11 In

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Kimberly Pratt and Richard Bohannon

Context:

Stretching exercise regimens are routinely prescribed to increase range of motion (ROM) and diminish injuries.

Objective:

To examine the effect of a 3-minute passive stretch on ankle-dorsiflexion ROM in a nonpathological population.

Setting:

University laboratory.

Design:

Prospective, randomized, controlled study.

Participants:

24 apparently healthy volunteers.

Interventions:

Subjects stood with their heels suspended from the edge of a platform. The experimental subjects stretched for 3 minutes on 3 consecutive days.

Main Outcome Measures:

Passive ankle-dorsiflexion ROM.

Results:

Ankle-dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly (P < .0005) over the course of each day’s stretch. No significant gains in ankle-dorsiflexion ROM were realized over 3 days.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest the need for further research to determine the stretching frequency and duration that will result in lasting increases in ankle-dorsiflexion ROM

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Taha Ibrahim Yildiz, Elif Turgut and Irem Duzgun

.01.001 Appendix Group 1 Group 2 Weeks 0–2 Weeks 0–2 Cervical manual therapy (twice a week) Cervical stretching exercise (3 × 5) Craniocervical flexion exercise (grade 1, 2 × 10) Cervical manual therapy (twice a week) Cervical stretching exercise (3 × 5) Craniocervical flexion exercise (grade 1, 2 × 10) Push

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Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd

included scapular retraction, ER, and shoulder flexion for the lower trapezius with bands, and the stretching exercise was a partner IR stretch. Participants were given at least 2 bands with different levels of resistance based on their current ability to perform the exercises. The participants were asked

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Mariam A. Ameer and Qassim I. Muaidi

groups, namely, control and experimental; both groups underwent a baseline assessment. Subjects in the experimental group were tested before and after a 5-minute warming-up and acute short-duration static stretching exercise of 3 lower limb muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstring, and planter flexors groups

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Kosuke Fujita, Masatoshi Nakamura, Hiroki Umegaki, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Nishishita, Hiroki Tanaka, Satoko Ibuki and Noriaki Ichihashi

0003-9993(96)90009-X 18. Muir IW , Chesworth BM , Vandervoort AA . Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects . J Orthop Sports Phys Ther . 1999 ; 29 ( 2 ): 106 – 113 ; discussion 114–105. PubMed doi:10.2519/jospt

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Johnny Padulo, Riadh Khalifa, Sana Ridène, Khaled Alamri, Mirjana Milić, Sabri Gueid and Karim Chamari

20-m stretching set, a 10-second active recovery time allowed the players to walk back to the starting position. During performance of the exercises, participants were instructed to keep the trunk straight. Table 2 Active Dynamic Stretching Exercises Muscle group Stretching exercise Gluteus Walk

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Nicola Giovanelli, Filippo Vaccari, Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Jasmine Copetti, Marco Garra, Lea Biasutti and Stefano Lazzer

.0000000000002271 29189581 4. Bacurau RF , Monteiro GA , Ugrinowitsch C , Tricoli V , Cabral LF , Aoki MS . Acute effect of a ballistic and a static stretching exercise bout on flexibility and maximal strength . J Strength Cond Res . 2009 ; 23 : 304 – 308 . PubMed ID: 19057408 doi:10.1519/JSC