Little in-depth knowledge is known about the person behind successful coaching. Therefore, the current study was designed to comprehensively examine the personality of a successful Olympic coach. Using McAdams’ whole-person framework, we sought to elicit a coherent description of this coach’s personality by integrating data drawn from three layers of personality: (i) dispositional traits, (ii) personal strivings, and (iii) narrative identity. The findings suggest that, compared with the norm, the participant coach is emotionally stable, agreeable, conscientious, and open to new experiences. His achievement and power strivings shape his motivational agenda as a coach. His narrative identity identifies many redemptive sequences that speak of a coach who is seeking to redeem his failures as an athlete, to feel special, and who invests himself wholeheartedly into developing others to help fulfill their potential. Overall, the study, incorporating McAdams’ personality framework, provided a deep understanding of the person as a coach. We were able to garner insights about how this individual typically behaves, what guides and structures his coaching priorities, and how he has made sense of his life experiences that are fundamental to his investment in coaching and winning. Tentative implications for coaches and coach developers are presented.
Clifford J. Mallett and Tristan J. Coulter
Alison L. Smith, Nikos Ntoumanis, Joan L. Duda, and Maarten Vansteenkiste
Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that start-of-season autonomous goal motives were linked to midseason effort, which subsequently predicted end-of-season goal attainment. Attainment was positively related to changes in psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted changes in emotional well-being. In a second model, autonomous and controlled motives positively predicted task- and disengagement-oriented coping strategies, respectively. In turn, these strategies were differentially associated with effort. The findings provide support for contextual adaptations of the self-concordance model and demonstrate the role of coping strategies in the goal striving process.
Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis, Jet J.C.S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten, and Nicola Paine
This investigation sought to clarify mixed results in the literature exploring coach behaviors, basic psychological needs, goal motivation, and well- and ill-being. Regional-level team sport athletes (N = 241) completed questionnaires on the aforementioned variables at the beginning of the season. A subsample (n = 70) provided saliva samples to assess physical ill-being. At the end of the season, athletes (n = 98) reported their goal motivation and attainment. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coach behaviors were related to needs satisfaction and thwarting, which were related to autonomous and controlled goal motives respectively. Autonomous motives were related to well- and ill-being; controlled motives were only related to ill-being. Over time, only end-of-season autonomous goal motives were related to goal attainment. The findings provide an insight into how coaches can facilitate optimum goal striving and well-being in their athletes.
Alison Smith, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Joan Duda
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999), this study examined the motivational processes underlying goal striving in sport as well as the role of perceived coach autonomy support in the goal process. Structural equation modeling with a sample of 210 British athletes showed that autonomous goal motives positively predicted effort, which, in turn, predicted goal attainment. Goal attainment was positively linked to need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted psychological well-being. Effort and need satisfaction were found to mediate the associations between autonomous motives and goal attainment and between attainment and well-being, respectively. Controlled motives negatively predicted well-being, and coach autonomy support positively predicted both autonomous motives and need satisfaction. Associations of autonomous motives with effort were not reducible to goal difficulty, goal specificity, or goal efficacy. These findings support the self-concordance model as a framework for further research on goal setting in sport.
Robert Joel Schinke, Amy T. Blodgett, Kerry R. McGannon, Yang Ge, Odirin Oghene, and Michelle Seanor
This study explores a composite vignette of athletes acculturating in a national sport system. The research questions were: What acculturation narratives did the athletes’ construct when they considered the notion of their receiving culture’s national sport system? And within these, what are the key challenges in relation to support that the athletes storied about their receiving culture’s national sport system as they sought to acculturate? The research was framed in critical acculturation (see Chirkov, 2009a, 2009b). The fluid process of acculturation is illustrated using creative nonfiction presenting one unifying voice presented within a composite vignettes (see Spalding & Phillips, 2007). The three themes in the acculturation vignette were as follows: (a) nothing but love—a nationalistic romance, (b) losing my romance with nationalism, and (c) dollars in exchange for newcomer results. This project reveals how immigrant elite athletes can move between distinct narratives that can contradict one another.
Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield
trait-like and develops in childhood and adolescence, but also shows changes over the life span (e.g., Landa & Bybee, 2007 ). The current consensus is that perfectionism is comprised of two higher order dimensions. First, perfectionistic strivings encompass perfectionist personal standards and a self
Luke F. Olsson, Michael C. Grugan, Joseph N. Martin, and Daniel J. Madigan
measures and associated perfectionism dimensions can be integrated into a higher order model of perfectionism (also known as the two-factor model; see Stoeber & Madigan, 2016 ). The higher order model consists of two broad dimensions of perfectionism labeled perfectionistic strivings (PS) and
Laura C. Healy, Nikos Ntoumanis, and Calum A. Arthur
In daily life, the management of goals pursued simultaneously has been described as a juggling act ( Louro, Pieters, & Zeelenberg, 2007 ) and can present significant challenges for individuals. People regularly strive for multiple goals within a single context, such as a basketball player trying to
Dean R. Watson, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan
excessively high personal standards, which are accompanied by overly critical evaluations of behavior ( Frost & Marten, 1990 ). Current understanding suggests that perfectionism is a multidimensional trait and includes two higher order dimensions: perfectionistic strivings (PS), reflecting personal standards
Mark R. Lyberger
management of education and teaching. They should strive to identify core values and beliefs to improve quality, methods, and benefits of education. The identification of values can enable groups to confront change while remaining true to their overarching principles ( Bell, 2008 ). Tyler and Hlebowitsh