) establish whether fluctuations of power output are structured or due to random noise. Methods Participants Twenty male cyclists (mean [SD]; age 36  y, stature 180  cm, body mass 76  kg; V ˙ O 2 max 60.4 [7.1] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) volunteered to participate in this study. Cyclists’ performance level
Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson and Brook Galna
John J. Jackson
Sport has a multitude of organizations, which are social systems organized for the attainment of particular types of goals. Organizations are characterized by divisions of labor, power, and communication responsibilities through which regularities such as task allocation, supervision, and coordination are developed. Such regularities constitute the organization’s structure, which is described here in terms of formal relations and communication.
Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill and Christopher P. Niemiec
The potential benefits of children’s engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children’s self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes’ basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches’ providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes’ volition (i.e., autonomy support).
Sarah P. Shultz, Jinsup Song, Andrew P. Kraszewski, Jocelyn F. Hafer, Smita Rao, Sherry Backus, Rajshree M. Hillstrom and Howard J. Hillstrom
with overuse. Planus foot types are often associated with a lower arch structure and have been linked to increased frontal plane motion and subsequently different plantar pressures across the forefoot 7 and midfoot. 8, 9 Additionally, a lower arched foot has been associated with increased risk for
Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang
period ( Irish et al., 2014 ). Thus, the differences in PA levels between days may have been minimal, resulting in little observable impact on sleep parameters. A clearer picture of the acute impact of PA on sleep may be found in individuals who participate in a structured exercise training regimen that
Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Lynn Van den Berghe, Jotie De Meyer and Leen Haerens
The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers’ beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers’ in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers’ beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers’ actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.
Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender and Debra Hope
Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming, & Grossbard, 2006 ), but replication of the scale factor structure is needed in an English-speaking population. The SAS-2 is a shortened version of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS; Smith et al., 2006 ). In a sample of 9–11 years olds ( n = 484) and 12
Michael Buchecker, Stefan Wegenkittl, Thomas Stöggl and Erich Müller
[SD], variance, etc.), the structure/shape of variability, rather than the magnitude/amount, is quantified ( Stergiou, Buzzi, Kurz, & Heidel, 2004 ). To improve the motor control fitness, unstable support surfaces are commonly integrated in training programs (for review, see Anderson & Behm, 2005
Jessica L. Chandler, Keith Brazendale, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B. Moore, Xuemei Sui, Robert G. Weaver and Michael W. Beets
primary approaches for increasing PA within these settings has been to integrate strategies to maximize children’s accumulation of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during preexisting scheduled PA opportunities. Within scheduled PA opportunities, there are 2 common structures of the PA experience
Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey
effects in healthy, community-dwelling adults, structured exercise is one intervention of interest ( Anderson-Hanley, Nimon, & Westen, 2010 ; Bean, Vora, & Frontera, 2004 ; Hulya, Sevi, Serap, & Ayse, 2015 ; Nelson et al., 2007 ; Penedo & Dahn, 2005 ; Wang, Yeh, Wang, Wang, Lin, 2011 ). It has been