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Scott E. Crouter, Paul R. Hibbing and Samuel R. LaMunion

comparing SB estimates from the AG and AP to criterion measures in both structured and free-living settings. To date, most previous studies have used structured activities or short bouts in a specific setting (e.g., classroom) and measured posture through direct observation. EE has often been overlooked and

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Jason Berry, Bruce Abernethy and Jean Côté

The developmental histories of 32 players in the Australian Football League (AFL), independently classified as either expert or less skilled in their perceptual and decision-making skills, were collected through a structured interview process and their year-on-year involvement in structured and deliberate play activities retrospectively determined. Despite being drawn from the same elite level of competition, the expert decision-makers differed from the less skilled in having accrued, during their developing years, more hours of experience in structured activities of all types, in structured activities in invasion-type sports, in invasion-type deliberate play, and in invasion activities from sports other than Australian football. Accumulated hours invested in invasion-type activities differentiated between the groups, suggesting that it is the amount of invasion-type activity that is experienced and not necessarily intent (skill development or fun) or specificity that facilitates the development of perceptual and decision-making expertise in this team sport.

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

structured or unstructured. Participants were asked to complete the diary with the help of a parent/guardian if necessary. If a child returned an empty diary, it was confirmed verbally that no structured activity had occurred. A detailed definition of structured physical activity was provided with several

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E. Kipling Webster, Leah E. Robinson and Danielle D. Wadsworth

structured activities may be important for this young population. Classroom-based activity breaks (CBAB), short bouts (ie, 10 min) of structured activity, are a good strategy to help meet the recommended 180 minutes of daily activity for preschoolers. 1 Research has established that CBAB are effective for

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Maurice R. Puyau, Anne L. Adolph, Yan Liu, Theresa A. Wilson, Issa F. Zakeri and Nancy F. Butte

Background:

The absolute energy cost of activities in children increases with age due to greater muscle mass and physical capability associated with growth and developmental maturation; however, there is a paucity of data in preschool-aged children. Study aims were 1) to describe absolute and relative energy cost of common activities of preschool-aged children in terms of VO2, energy expenditure (kilocalories per minute) and child-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) measured by room calorimetry for use in the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity, and 2) to predict METs from age, sex and heart rate (HR).

Methods:

Energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), HR, and child-METs of 13 structured activities were measured by room respiration calorimetry in 119 healthy children, ages 3 to 5 years.

Results:

EE, VO2, HR, and child-METs are presented for 13 structured activities ranging from sleeping, sedentary, low-, moderate- to high-active. A significant curvilinear relationship was observed between child-METs and HR (r 2 = .85; P = .001).

Conclusion:

Age-specific child METs for 13 structured activities in preschool-aged children will be useful to extend the Youth Compendium of Physical Activity for research purposes and practical applications. HR may serve as an objective measure of MET intensity in preschool-aged children.

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Anouk WMC Oortwijn, Guy Plasqui, John J. Reilly and Anthony D. Okely

Background:

The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a structured activity protocol in a room calorimeter among young children.

Methods:

Five healthy children (age 5.2 ± 0.4 y) performed an activity protocol in a room calorimeter, ranging from sedentary to vigorous-intensity activities. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated from continuous measurements of O2-consumption and CO2-production using Weir’s formula. Resting EE was defined as EE during the first 30 min of the study where participants were seated while watching television. The children wore an ActiGraph accelerometer on the right and left hip.

Results:

The protocol was well tolerated by all children, and lasted 150 to 175 min. Further, differences were seen in both EE and accelerometer counts across 3 of the 4 activity intensities.

Conclusions:

It is feasible for young children to perform a structured activity protocol in a room calorimeter enhancing the possibility of conducting future studies to cross-validate existing accelerometer prediction equations.

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Hideaki Kumahara, Hiroaki Tanaka, Philippe Terrier, Kojiro Ishii, Jean-Michel Oppert, Bernard Guy-Grand and Yves Schutz

Background:

Daily energy expenditure (EE) assessment plays an important role in clinical strategies for lifestyle-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of 2 activity monitors from different manufacturers to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity related-energy expenditure (PAEE) in daily living conditions.

Methods:

Sixteen adults stayed in a respiratory chamber for 24 h. The subjects wore 2 accelerometers based on uniaxial (Lifecorder; UNI) and triaxial accelerometry (Tritrac-R3D; TRI).

Results:

A highly significant correlation was observed between measured TEE and estimated values (r=0.868 in UNI and r=0.819 in TRI; P<0.001). However, TEE and PAEE were significantly underestimated: TEEUNI by -9% and TEETRI by -12%; PAEEUNI by -10% and PAEETRI by -55%.

Conclusions:

The EE of structured activity was adequately estimated by both accelerometers, whereas the EE of the non-structured activities involved much more errors. The results also suggest that the algorithm for EE calculation may be more important than the number of planes used for detecting acceleration.

Open access

Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Cheryl A. Howe, Dinesh John, Amanda Hickey, Jeremy Steeves, Scott Conger, Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey-Keadle, Sarah Burkart, Sofiya Alhassan, David Bassett Jr and Patty S. Freedson

Background:

Thirty-five percent of the activities assigned MET values in the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth were obtained from direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to provide directly measured EE for several different activities in youth.

Methods:

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 178 youths (80 females, 98 males) was first measured. Participants then performed structured activity bouts while wearing a portable metabolic system to directly measure EE. Steady-state oxygen consumption data were used to compute activity METstandard (activity VO2/3.5) and METmeasured (activity VO2/measured RMR) for the different activities.

Results:

Rates of EE were measured for 70 different activities and ranged from 1.9 to 12.0 METstandard and 1.5 to 10.0 METmeasured.

Conclusion:

This study provides directly measured energy cost values for 70 activities in children and adolescents. It contributes empirical data to support the expansion of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

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Joanne Butt, Robert S. Weinberg, Jeff D. Breckon and Randal P. Claytor

Background:

Physical activity (PA) declines as adolescents get older, and the motivational determinants of PA warrant further investigation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the amount of physical and sedentary activity that adolescents participated in across age, gender, and race, and to investigate adolescents’ attraction to PA and their perceived barriers and benefits across age, gender, and race.

Methods:

High school students (N = 1163) aged between 13 and 16 years completed questionnaires on minutes and intensity of physical and sedentary activity, interests in physical activity, and perceived benefits and barriers to participating in PA.

Results:

A series of multivariate analyses of variance were conducted and followed up with discriminant function analysis. PA participation decreased in older females. In addition, fun of physical exertion was a primary attraction to PA for males more than females. Body image as an expected outcome of participating in PA contributed most to gender differences.

Conclusion:

There is a need to determine why PA drops-off as females get older. Findings underscore the importance of structuring activities differently to sustain interest in male and female adolescents, and highlights motives of having a healthy body image, and making PA fun to enhance participation.

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Rachel A. Jones, Annaleise Riethmuller, Kylie Hesketh, Jillian Trezise, Marijka Batterham and Anthony D. Okely

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a physical activity program for preschool children. A 20-week, 2-arm parallel cluster randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. The intervention comprised structured activities for children and professional development for staff. The control group participated in usual care activities, which included designated inside and outside playtime. Primary outcomes were movement skill development and objectively measured physical activity. At follow-up, compared with children in the control group, children in the intervention group showed greater improvements in movement skill proficiency, with this improvement statically significant for overall movement skill development (adjust diff. = 2.08, 95% CI 0.76, 3.40; Cohen’s d = 0.47) and significantly greater increases in objectively measured physical activity (counts per minute) during the preschool day (adjust diff. = 110.5, 95% CI 33.6, 187.3; Cohen’s d = 0.46). This study demonstrates that a physical activity program implemented by staff within a preschool setting is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.