; Robinson, 1990 ; Solmon & Lee, 1996 ). Research on Student Attitude Research suggests that students with different skill levels have different experiences in school physical education ( Manson, 2003 ; Silverman, 2005 ; Silverman & Subramaniam, 1999 ; Solmon & Lee, 1996 ). A low skilled student often
Panos Constantinides and Stephen Silverman
Sharon R. Phillips and Stephen Silverman
This study examined the attitudes of upper elementary school students toward physical education. Fourth and fifth grade students (N = 1344) from 13 school districts, 17 schools, and five states completed an attitude instrument with scores that had been previously validated for a two factor model (affect and cognition) and a four factor model (affect and cognition with the subfactors of teacher and curriculum). For the four factor model, there was a difference between grades for both affect-curriculum and affect-teacher (F(1, 1340) = 6.25, p < .01, ηp 2 = .005). Similarly, for the two factor model the affect variable was different between grades, indication that as students age their affect toward physical education decreases (F(1, 1341)= 48.65, p < .001, ηp 2 = .035). This study suggests that upper elementary school students have an overall favorable attitude toward physical education, impacted by how they think and feel about the curriculum and teacher.
Fengjuan Li, Junjun Chen, and Miles Baker
While there have been many studies into students’ attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students’ attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of students’ attitudes toward Physical Education comprised of five dimensions, namely Physical Fitness, Self-Actualization and Social Development, Physical Education Curriculum, Physical Education Teachers, and Physical Education Teaching, was conceptually and empirically developed and tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The overall findings suggested that the students had moderately positive attitudes toward Physical Education. More specifically, the findings indicated that students’ attitudes had a significantly positive moderate association with their current participation, a small association with their intended lifelong participation in physical activity outside school, and a significantly positive moderate association with their Physical Education academic achievement. Implications for Physical Education teacher training and curriculum modifications are discussed.
Sally R. Ross and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 115 undergraduate sport management students’ attitudes toward women’s roles in the workplace and three variables that might explain those attitudes: perspective taking, gender self-esteem, and attitudes toward sexist language. The participants, 88 men and 27 women, were enrolled in one midsize university in the Midwestern United States. On average, the participants were ambivalent about women’s roles. Women were significantly more supportive of women’s roles than were men (p < .001). Taken together, the ability to take the perspective of others and attitudes toward sexist language uniquely explained 16% of the variance in men’s attitudes toward women. Neither perspective taking, nor gender self-esteem, nor attitudes toward sexist language correlated significantly with the women’s attitudes toward women. Women’s gender self-esteem was inversely related to their attitudes toward women. Based on the results, suggestions for recruitment, curriculum development, and classroom strategies for enhancing sport management students’ attitudes toward women are presented.
Stephen Silverman and Prithwi Raj Subramaniam
This paper reviews the literature on student attitude in physical education. First, an overview of the concept of attitude is presented followed by a discussion of why we need to investigate student attitude. Next, there is a detailed discussion of issues related to attitude measurement—factors that often are problematic in research in this area. Both quantitative and qualitative tools are discussed with a particular focus on developing an instrument that has the properties of reliability and validity. The third major section of the paper presents an overview of the results of attitude research in physical education. Finally, the paper concludes with implications for research in this area.
Emily A. Roper and José A. Santiago
Employing a grounded theory approach, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the influence of service-learning (SL) on undergraduate kinesiology students’ attitudes toward and experiences working with P–12 students with disabilities. Fourteen (9 female, 5 male) kinesiology students enrolled in an adapted physical education class participated in one of three focus group interviews regarding their experiences of working with P–12 students with disabilities. All interview data were analyzed following procedures outlined by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The following five themes represent the participants’ experiences and attitudes toward P–12 students with disabilities after their involvement in a SL project: (a) initial reactions, (b) selection of P–12 students, (c) preconceived attitudes, (d) the benefits of SL, and (e) positive experience. All 14 of the participants who volunteered to share their experiences indicated that the SL experience positively affected their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities.
Janet B. Parks and Mary Ann Roberton
This paper discusses three studies on changing people's attitudes toward sexist/nonsexist language. In Study 1, sport management students (N= 164) were asked how to persuade others to use nonsexist language. Many suggested education. Study 2 participants (N = 201) were asked if they had ever discussed sexist language in instructional settings. Analysis of their attitudes revealed an interaction between gender and instruction. Study 3 (N = 248) tested the effects of 3 types of instruction on student attitudes about sexist/nonsexist language. After a 50-minute intervention, Study 3 participants were generally undecided about sexist/nonsexist language, and their attitudes did not differ across instructional strategies (p > .01). In all conditions, males were significantly less receptive to nonsexist language than females (p < .01). This “gender gap” was magnified by a combination of direct and indirect instruction. Until more is known, the authors propose (a) modeling and (b) instruction grounded in empathy as initial strategies for teaching inclusive language.
Marni Brown, Erin Ruel, and Stephanie Medley-Rath
In light of the increasing participation of girls/women in sport, we investigate the attitudes of high school boys and girls toward potential increased opportunities for girls’ to participate in sport. There has been little research on high school students’ attitudes toward girls’ sport participation decomposed by gender and athletic status. We find that, on average, high school students are supportive of increased opportunities for girls to participate in sport. Girls are more supportive than boys on average. While there is no difference among girls by athletic status, male competitive athletes show the most negative attitudes toward opportunities for girls to participate in sport compared with male noncompetitive athletes. Lastly, racial minority groups express positive attitudes toward increased opportunities for girls to participate in sport compared with whites.
Raul Reina, Yeshayahu Hutzler, María C. Iniguez-Santiago, and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia
with disabilities (see Hutzler, 2003 for a review). Students’ attitudes, together with additional environmental and personal factors, may ultimately contribute to their behavior toward their peers with a disability and their intention to associate with them ( Bebetsos, Zafeiriadis, Derri
C. Craig Stewart
This study set out to determine the effects of two disabled university students on the attitudes of students in a weight training class. University students enrolled in two general weight training classes agreed to participate in this study. They were administered the Attitude Toward Disabled Persons scale at the start and finish of a university quarter (10 weeks). Two physically disabled university students agreed to be integrated into one of the classes. T tests and an analysis of covariance revealed a significant improvement in the attitudes of students who were in the weight training class with the disabled students. Implications for systematic practicum experience for majors in areas that would have future contact with disabled populations was discussed. Peer interaction appears to have a positive significant effect on the attitudes of nondisabled students toward disabled individuals.