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Senlin Chen and Alex Garn

“Effective teachers’ focus on student learning is razor-sharp and the driving force in educational physical education” ( Ennis, 2014a , p. 11). Providing aligned learning experiences through effective teaching strategies is a priority of curriculum and instruction. For decades, physical education

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Karen E. Collins, Catherine E. Overson, and Victor A. Benassi

preparation is assessed through low-stakes performance on preparatory material ( Koles, Nelson, Stolfi, Parmelee, & Destephen, 2005 ). This framework enables the instructor to assess student learning through their engagement in transfer and application learning activities. Assessment of student learning in

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Mitchell McSweeney, Georgia Teare, and Helen Liu

disseminated through and in sport management education for student learning ( DeSensi, 1994 ; Frisby, 2005 ; McGarry, 2020 ). To this end, several scholars (e.g.,  Skinner & Gilbert, 2007 ; Zervas & Glazzard, 2018 ) have advocated for the use of critical perspectives in sport management classrooms that may

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Paul G. Schempp

This study determined changes in physical education student teachers’ beliefs (perceptions) of control over student learning. A pre-post student teaching design was used to detect changes in beliefs of 44 volunteer physical education student teachers. Beliefs in control over learning outcomes were measured by the Teacher Locus of Control scale. Pretesting was completed 5 weeks prior to teaching, and posttesting was administered at the completion of the 10-week student teaching experience. Data were gathered over a 2-year period. Data analyzed via a paired t-test indicated the student teachers’ belief of responsibility for student learning was decreased. Specifically, total responsibility for student outcomes and responsibility for student failure showed significant p < .05) decreases. No change in beliefs regarding control over student success was detected. A multiple regression analysis revealed significant p < .05) gender differences on the postteaching composite score. It appeared that males showed a significantly greater overall decrease in perceptions of beliefs of control over student learning.

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Thomas Wandzilak, Ronald J. Bonnstetter, and Lynn L. Mortensen

In order for university professors to become more effective at the practice of teaching, they must be provided with accurate, multidimensional feedback on what transpires in their own classes. The Teaching Feedback Model (TFM) is a process that combines the systematic observation of student and teacher behaviors with an analysis of student learning. Based on information provided by the coding of videotaped classroom episodes through a computer program and student learning data, a profile is constructed that informs the teacher whether continuity exists among what is supposed to occur (planning), what actually occurs (doing), and what the student has gained from the class (learning). The purpose of this paper is to present this model in detail and to demonstrate how it is currently being used in college-level physical education theory classes.

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Stephen M. Roth

Higher education faculty have many responsibilities, with teaching as arguably the most public of those yet also the task for which many are least prepared. Professional development around teaching and learning can provide faculty with the knowledge and skills needed to improve student learning while also improving job satisfaction. The present paper describes the use of faculty learning communities as a best practice for professional development around teaching. Such communities engage a group of participants over time and provide a way to impart knowledge and resources around teaching and learning, encourage application of new skills in the classroom, and evaluate and refect on the effectiveness of those trials. Research shows that time spent in faculty learning communities translates into improvements in both teaching effectiveness and student learning. Resources are provided for administrators interested in developing and supporting faculty learning communities around teaching and learning.

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Ang Chen, Tan Zhang, Stephanie L. Wells, Ray Schweighardt, and Catherine D. Ennis

Based on the value orientation theory, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of value orientation incongruence between physical education teachers and an externally designed curriculum on student learning in a concept-based fitness-centered physical education curriculum. Physical education teachers (n = 15) with different value orientations taught an externally designed, standards-based fitness/healthful living curriculum to their middle school students (n = 3,827) in 155 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade intact classes. A pre-post assessment design was used to determine whether student fitness/healthful living knowledge gains differed in terms of teachers’ value orientations. An ANOVA on class means of residual-adjusted knowledge gain scores revealed no statistically significant differences based on value orientations. The evidence suggests that teacher value orientation impact may be mediated by curriculum impact. This finding supports the observation that a well-designed physical education curriculum may minimize the impact of teachers’ diverse value orientations on the curriculum implementation and student learning.

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J. Len Gusthart and Eric J. Sprigings

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of two experienced and expert teachers on the degree of student learning in a second grade physical education class. A systematic observation instrument (QMTPS) and number of practice trials were utilized to collect data on teaching behaviors. The experimental teachers were videotaped for later analysis over a 3-week period. Students were pretested and posttested to determine the extent of learning in selected force production and reduction skills. Analysis of the data showed that for three of the four force production and reduction skills, learning did occur in the experimental group. Process characteristics of the experimental teachers were described.

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Meredith A. Whitley, David Walsh, Laura Hayden, and Daniel Gould


Three undergraduate students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning course are chronicled using narrative inquiry.


Data collection included demographics questionnaires, pre- and postservice interviews, reflection journals, postservice written reflections, and participant observations. The data were analyzed with comprehensive deductive and inductive analysis procedures, along with the creation of detailed narratives summarizing students’ individual experiences and outcomes.


Results revealed student growth and development, including leadership development, improved interpersonal skills, increased knowledge of social justice issues, and enhanced self-understanding. However, the number, depth, and complexity of these outcomes varied significantly, which was largely explained by individual variables (e.g., interest in learning, level of effort, degree of adaptability).


These findings highlight the opportunity for course instructors to lead reflective activities before and during the service-learning experience, along with providing individualized guidance and feedback on students’ learning, effort, and adaptability throughout the service-learning course.

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Jo Williams and Colleen Colles

Increased accountability has led institutions of higher education to search for assessment tools that provide documentation on the achievement of specific learning outcomes. Portfolio assessment has become commonplace among many disciplines but limited work has been presented within sport management. The purpose of this research is to present an adaptable portfolio assessment framework that will allow faculty to assess student learning outcomes using the internship portfolio. Student achievement is assessed in relation to the development of broad-based skills and the application of curriculum content standards. Over 500 entries from 35 portfolios were analyzed via scoring rubrics. Data collected indicated that with appropriate support, the portfolio framework could be used to assess individual student achievement within the desired areas. A positive relationship between portfolio scores and major GPA was found; however, no significant differences in portfolio scores were identified based on job descriptions.