teachers ( Wang et al., 2015 ), and the attitudes of peers without disabilities ( Reina et al., 2019 ). A number of findings have emerged from this line of inquiry. Research on parent perspectives has illuminated the value that parents of students with disabilities place on PE and physical activity ( An
Katherine Holland and Justin A. Haegele
Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Yandan Wu
For many years now, there has been a clear international trend toward moving students with disabilities from segregated, special schools to inclusive, general education schools. This trend can be seen in general physical education (GPE) classes in places such as China ( Chen, Lau, & Jin, 2006
Mary Ann Devine
College years are an experimental phase in young adulthood and can lay the foundation for lifelong behaviors. One type of behavior developed during these years is the use of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). LTPA experiences of typical college students have been examined, but there is a lack of studies examining the experiences of students with disabilities. The purpose of this inquiry is to understand the experiences of college students with disabilities and their LTPA, with focus on factors that facilitate or create barriers to engagement. Grounded theory was used to understand LTPA with undergraduates with mobility or visual impairments. Results indicated a theme of culture of physical activity and disability as they received a message that engagement in LTPA was “unnecessary” or “heroic,” which altered their LTPA experiences. Barriers to LTPA can be understood through a social relational lens to recognize the multidimensionality of barriers and facilitators to LTPA.
Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman, and Michelle A. Grenier
Inclusion of students with disabilities (SWDs) in the context of physical education (PE) has been widely discussed internationally and addressed in various studies ( Block & Obrusnikova, 2007 ; Block & Vogler, 1994 ; Qi & Há, 2012 ; Smith & Thomas, 2006 ; Wilhelmsen & Sorensen, 2017 ). It is
Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi, and Lin Wang
This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.
Emily A. Roper and José A. Santiago
Employing a grounded theory approach, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine the influence of service-learning (SL) on undergraduate kinesiology students’ attitudes toward and experiences working with P–12 students with disabilities. Fourteen (9 female, 5 male) kinesiology students enrolled in an adapted physical education class participated in one of three focus group interviews regarding their experiences of working with P–12 students with disabilities. All interview data were analyzed following procedures outlined by Strauss and Corbin (1998). The following five themes represent the participants’ experiences and attitudes toward P–12 students with disabilities after their involvement in a SL project: (a) initial reactions, (b) selection of P–12 students, (c) preconceived attitudes, (d) the benefits of SL, and (e) positive experience. All 14 of the participants who volunteered to share their experiences indicated that the SL experience positively affected their attitudes toward individuals with disabilities.
Georgios D. Sideridis and Judy P. Chandler
The Teacher Integration Attitudes Questionnaire (TIAQ) was developed in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs of teachers (n = 110) with regard to the inclusion of students with disabilities in regular education settings. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the final structural model of the TIAQ comprised four constructs, namely, “Skills,” “Benefits,” “Acceptance,” and “Support.” The final model was fully supported by the derivation sample of music education teachers (n = 54) and produced a Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 1.00). The replication sample of physical education teachers (n = 56) partially supported the generality of the TIAQ, (CFI = .844). Further, the internal consistency properties of the TIAQ (Cronbach’s alpha was .77 for both samples) were satisfactory. We conclude that the psychometric properties of the TIAQ were adequate, and it can be used as a valid assessment in evaluating the status of inclusion for students with disabilities as perceived by music education and physical education teachers. However, future research is needed to support its generality with other groups of teachers and professionals.
Martin E. Block and Ron Zeman
The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of including three 6th-grade students with severe disabilities who were given support services into a regular physical education class. Basketball skill improvement in passing, shooting, and dribbling during a 3-1/2-week basketball unit and attitudes toward students with disabilities were compared between a 6th-grade class that included 3 students with severe disabilities (CI) and a 6th-grade class in the same school that did not have any students with disabilities (C2). Results from the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test indicated no differences in skill improvement between the two groups except in dribbling, which favored C2. C1 showed significantly greater pretest scores in general and sport-specific attitudes compared to C2, but there were no differences in gain scores for either general or sport-specific attitude. It was argued that, with proper support services, students with severe disabilities can be included in regular physical education without negatively affecting the program for students without disabilities.
Patricia L. Krebs and Martin E. Block
The mission of education is to prepare all students with and without disabilities for adult life in the community. Recent amendments to Public Law 94-142 now require transition services, which promote movement from school to postschool activities, for all students with disabilities to begin as early as age 14 and to be included in the student’s IEP. Most special education programs provide vocational, domestic, and community independent living skills training. However, the same cannot be said for lifelong sport and fitness training. A life-skills model for teaching sport and fitness skills that are chronologically age appropriate, functional, and community based is preferred to the traditional developmental approach for teaching adapted physical education. The life-skills model for teaching adapted physical education changes the setting–from school sport facilities to community sport and recreation facilities–in which adapted physical education classes are conducted. It also expands the role of the adapted physical educator from direct service provider to include transition team member, consultant to regular physical education and community sport and recreation agencies, trainer of support personnel, and environmental analyst.
Rebecca R. Bryan, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, and Hans van der Mars
The use of paraeducators has increased as a main mechanism to include more students with disabilities in the public schools in the U.S. Although the utilization of paraeducators is intended to be a supportive service delivery option, many concerns and challenges have resulted. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment from the perspectives of special education, physical education, and adapted physical education teachers and paraeducators. Data were collected from a phenomenological approach using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Results indicate concerns about the clarity of the role of the paraeducator in physical education. Emerging themes include elastic definitions of student protection and teacher backup, contradictory expectations and mixed acceptance, and paraeducators’ role ambiguity. Findings regarding the role of the paraeducator are essential in determining both best practice and legal policy for the appropriate utilization of paraeducators in physical education.