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Hio Teng Leong and Siu Ngor Fu

limiting sports and physical activity. 2 , 4 The supraspinatus tendon runs in the subacromial space (SAS) and is most commonly affected by pathological changes. 5 – 7 Reduction of the SAS during arm elevation has been proposed as one of the possible mechanisms in the etiology of RC tendinopathy. 7 – 10

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Rodney Y. L. Wong, Patrick S. H. Yung and H. T. Leong

an umbrella term that encompasses a range of shoulder pathological conditions, such as rotator cuff tendinitis/tendinosis, shoulder impingement syndrome, and subacromial bursitis. 2 Narrowing of the subacromial space (SAS) during arm elevation has been proposed to contribute to rotator cuff

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Stephen John Thomas, Charles Buz Swanik, Thomas W. Kaminski, Jill S. Higginson, Kathleen A. Swanik and Levon N. Nazarian

Context:

Subacromial impingement is a common injury in baseball players and has been linked to a reduction in the subacromial space. In addition, it has been suggested that decreases in scapular upward rotation will lead to decreases in the subacromial space and ultimately impingement syndrome.

Objective:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between acromiohumeral distance and scapular upward rotation in healthy college baseball players.

Design:

Posttest-only study design.

Setting:

Controlled laboratory setting.

Participants:

24 healthy college baseball players.

Intervention:

Participants were measured for all dependent variables at preseason.

Main Outcome Measures:

Acromiohumeral distance at rest and 90° of abduction was measured with a diagnostic ultrasound unit. Scapular upward rotation at rest and 90° of abduction was measured with a digital inclinometer.

Results:

Dominant-arm acromiohumeral distance at rest and 90° of abduction (P = .694, P = .840) was not significantly different than in the nondominant arm. In addition, there was not a significant correlation between acromiohumeral distance and scapular upward rotation at rest and 90° of abduction for either the dominant or the nondominant arm.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that the acromiohumeral distance is not adapting in the dominant arm in healthy throwing athletes. In addition, a relationship was not identified between acromiohumeral distance and scapular upward rotation, which was previously suggested. These results may suggest that changes that are typically seen in an injured population may be occurring due to the injury and are not preexisting. In addition, scapular upward rotation may not be the only contributing factor to acromiohumeral distance.

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Josep C. Benitez-Martinez, Jose Casaña-Granell, Yasmin Ezzatvar de Llago, Carlos Villaron-Casales, Gemma V. Espi-Lopez and Fernando Jimenez-Diaz

Context:

The supraspinatus muscle has an important role in the stabilization of the glenohumeral joint. Identifying abnormalities concerning its size and the subacromial space in the presence of pain may be relevant to provide more specific treatments focused on the etiology of pain.

Objective:

To determinate whether painful shoulder causes changes in the supraspinatus cross-sectional area (CSA) and the acromio-humeral distance (AHD) between overhead athletes.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Setting:

University campus and local sports clubs’ Physical Therapist room.

Participants:

81 male overhead athletes were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of shoulder pain and clinical symptoms.

Main Outcome Measures:

Ultrasonography measurements of the supraspinatus CSA and the AHD in 2 groups of overhead athletes with and without pain.

Results:

In the pain group, the CSA was significantly smaller compared with the no pain group. No differences between groups were found in the AHD measurement.

Conclusions:

Shoulder pain in overhead athletes was associated with a reduction in their supraspinatus muscle CSA, but not in the AHD. These findings suggest that muscle atrophy exists in the presence of pain. However, in active overhead athletes, the AHD is not clearly reduced in overhead athletes with shoulder pain. Further studies are needed to understand this condition.

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Razie J. Alibazi, Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Ann M. Cools, Enayatollah Bakhshi and Alireza Aziz Ahari

translation and can decrease the subacromial space. 23 , 24 Additionally, subsequent altered kinematics of the scapula or scapular dyskinesis (downward rotation, anterior tilt, and internal rotation) related to dysfunction or fatigue of scapular stabilizing muscles contribute to impingement syndrome by

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Hande Guney-Deniz, Gulcan Harput, Ugur Toprak and Irem Duzgun

-time ultrasonography (US) images of the subacromial space were obtained using a Toshiba Aplio 500 system (Toshiba, Otawara, Japan) with an 8- to 12-MHz linear transducer. All US images were obtained by a single investigator with 10 years of experience in US imaging of the shoulder. US images of the subacromial space

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

increasing the space between the rotator cuff and the acromion/coracoacromial ligament. 2 , 5 – 8 Conversely, posterior deltoid fibers run inferolaterally from the spine of the scapula to the deltoid tubercle, resulting in superior humeral glide and subacromial space narrowing upon contraction. In addition

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Sebastian Klich, Bogdan Pietraszewski, Matteo Zago, Manuela Galli, Nicola Lovecchio and Adam Kawczyński

subacromial space (defined by the acromiohumeral distance [AHD]). 5 , 9 In particular, it is influenced by greater SST due to reduced subacromial space as a result of acromial compression. 4 , 8 Prior studies examined the relationship between thicker SST and reduced AHD. 4 , 5 , 7 , 10 However, they

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Bin Chen, Yichao Zhao, Xianxin Cao, Guojiong Hu, Lincoln B. Chen and Wenxin Niu

rotation, is the most elongated at 120° shoulder abduction, changing the length/tension ratios. 21 , 33 , 34 Another explanation for this is that the shoulder subacromial space decreases significantly when performing internal rotation at 120° shoulder abduction in the coronal plane, thus reducing the

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Kellie C. Huxel Bliven and Kelsey J. Picha

, including glenohumeral internal rotation and subacromial space. Dry needling’s emergence as an intervention continues to gain attention, and Kamali et al 2 shed insight about the effect of its location relative to a myofascial trigger point on pain and disability in overhead athletes with shoulder