A high drive-for-thinness (DT) score obtained from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 is associated with surrogate markers of energy deficiency in exercising women. The purposes of this study were to confirm the association between DT and energy deficiency in a larger population of exercising women that was previously published and to compare the distribution of menstrual status in exercising women when categorized as high vs. normal DT. A high DT was defined as a score ≥7, corresponding to the 75th percentile for college-age women. Exercising women age 22.9 ± 4.3 yr with a BMI of 21.2±2.2 kg/m2 were retrospectively grouped as high DT (n = 27) or normal DT (n = 90) to compare psychometric, energetic, and reproductive characteristics. Chi-square analyses were performed to compare the distribution of menstrual disturbances between groups. Measures of resting energy expenditure (REE) (4,949 ± 494 kJ/day vs. 5,406 ± 560 kJ/day, p < .001) and adjusted REE (123 ± 16 kJ/LBM vs. 130 ± 9 kJ/LBM, p = .027) were suppressed in exercising women with high DT vs. normal DT, respectively. Ratio of measured REE to predicted REE (pREE) in the high-DT group was 0.85 ± 0.10, meeting the authors’ operational definition for an energy deficiency (REE:pREE <0.90). A greater prevalence of severe menstrual disturbances such as amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea was observed in the high-DT group (χ2 = 9.3, p = .003) than in the normal-DT group. The current study confirms the association between a high DT score and energy deficiency in exercising women and demonstrates a greater prevalence of severe menstrual disturbances in exercising women with high DT.
Jenna C. Gibbs, Nancy I. Williams, Jennifer L. Scheid, Rebecca J. Toombs and Mary Jane De Souza
Justine J. Reel, Sonya SooHoo, Holly Doetsch, Jennifer E. Carter and Trent A. Petrie
The purpose of the study was to determine prevalence rates of the female athlete triad (Triad), differences by sport category (aesthetic, endurance, and team/anaerobic), and the relationship between each of the components of the Triad. Female athletes (N= 451) from three Division I universities with an average age of 20 years completed the Menstrual History Questionnaire, Injury Assessment Questionnaire, and the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O’Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997). Almost 7% of female athletes reported clinical eating disorders, and 19.2% reported subclinical disordered eating. Disordered eating was prevalent in all three sport categories with no significant differences between groups. Muscle injuries were more prevalent in team/anaerobic sports (77.4%) than the aesthetic (68.1%) and endurance groups (58.1%). Furthermore, those athletes with menstrual dysfunction more frequently reported clinical eating disorders (1.4%) and sustained more skeletal injuries (51%) during their athletic career than athletes with regular menstrual function. Clinical implications and further research directions are addressed.
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
and athletic aptitude. Health Risk All EDs pose risk of psychological, social, and life-threatening medical complications (see Figure 1 ) with serious compromise in overall quality of life ( Styer, Conviser, Washburn, & Aldridge, 2014 ). Eating disorders and subclinical disordered eating behaviors
Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee and Chad M. Kerksick
.1123/ijsnem.21.4.280 9. Scheid JL , Williams NI , West SL , VanHeest JL , De Souza MJ . Elevated PYY is associated with energy deficiency and indices of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea . Appetite . 2009 ; 52 ( 1 ): 184 – 192 . PubMed ID: 18929607
Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin
, J.L. , & De Souza , M.J. ( 2009 ). Elevated PYY is associated with energy deficiency and indices of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea . Appetite, 52 , 184 – 192 . PubMed ID: 18929607 doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.016 10.1016/j.appet.2008
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin
( 2 ), 164 – 169 . doi:10.1093/ajcn/63.2.164 10.1093/ajcn/63.2.164 Scheid , J.L. , Williams , N.I. , West , S.L. , VanHeest , J.L. , & De Souza , M.J. ( 2009 ). Elevated PYY is associated with energy deficiency and indices of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with
Nicole C.A. Strock, Kristen J. Koltun, Emily A. Southmayd, Nancy I. Williams and Mary Jane De Souza
indices of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea . Appetite, 52 ( 1 ), 184 – 192 . PubMed ID: 18929607 doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.016 10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.016 Southmayd , E.A. , Mallinson , R.J. , Williams , N.I. , Mallinson , D.J. , & De Souza , M
Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman
), 2063 – 2071 . PubMed ID: 21502892 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821e52ab 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821e52ab Scheid , J.L. , Williams , N.I. , West , S.L. , VanHeest , J.L. , & De Souza , M.J. ( 2009 ). Elevated PYY is associated with energy deficiency and indices of subclinical disordered eating in