The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of subclinical psychological difficulties, as assessed by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP; Gardner & Moore, 2004b, 2006), on the efficacy of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC; Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007) performance enhancement intervention. Thirteen collegiate field hockey and volleyball athletes participated in a 7-week MAC protocol, and their results were compared to those of a control group of 7 same-sport athletes. Nonparametric analysis of the data offers additional support for MAC as a strategy for enhancing the athletic performance of collegiate athletes and suggests the importance of the accurate assessment of subclinical psychological difficulties to ensure the successful application of sport psychology interventions. In essence, these results suggest that the presence or absence of subclinical psychological difficulties may serve as a moderating factor in performance enhancement efforts.
Andrew T. Wolanin and Lori A. Schwanhausser
Patti L. Williams, Roger G. Sargent, Robert F. Valois, J. Wanzer Drane, Deborah M. Parra-Medina, and Larry J. Durstine
This study is an examination of eating behaviors and body image concerns among 587 female collegiate athletes from nine colleges/universities representing 14 different sports. Measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a questionnaire gathering general demographic information, reasons for dieting and/or using other methods of weight control, as well as information about expressed concerns from others regarding the respondents weight. Three sport groups were hypothesized to be at increased risk: athletes whose performance is subjectively scored; athletes who compete in a sport where a low body weight is considered advantageous; and athletes who must wear body conrevealing clothing. Chi-Square and Logistic Regression analyses revealed no association between these sport groups and the presence of a subclinical eating disorder (SED). Additional analyses determined no statistical association between student-athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level (versus Division II or III level) or student-athletes who were scholarship recipients (versus non-scholarship recipients) and the presence of SED. Student-athletes who have heard expressed concerns from others regarding their body weight were significantly more likely to report the presence of SED (p < .0001). Therefore, special care should be taken with all student-athletes when discussing body weight.
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
A growing body of evidence suggests that the prevalence of eating disorders and excessive concerns regarding body weight in certain subpopulations of female athletes are increasing. The pressure on female athletes to improve their performances and physiques, coupled with the general sociocultural demand placed on all women to be thin, often results in attempts to achieve unrealistic body size and body weight goals. For some female athletes the pressure to achieve and maintain a low body weight leads to potentially harmful patterns of restrictive eating or chronic dieting. This paper seeks to further delineate the characteristics of a recently identified subclinical eating disorder in female athletes: anorexia athletica. Research studies that support the existence of subclinical eating disorders will be reviewed. In addition, the possible physiological and psychological consequences of subclinical eating disorders will be explored.
Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore
The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.
’s observation that the severity of Mel’s symptoms might not meet the diagnostic criteria required for urgent clinical treatment and on my sport and clinical supervisors’ observation that ongoing sport psychology may offer preventive benefits for Mel’s “sub-clinical” needs while also mitigating harm by
Thomas Birkedal Stenqvist, Anna Katarina Melin, Ina Garthe, Gary Slater, Gøran Paulsen, Juma Iraki, Jose Areta, and Monica Klungland Torstveit
al., 2007 ), low RMR defined as an RMR ratio < 0.90 using the Cunningham ( 1980 ) equation ( Strock et al., 2020b ), subclinical low testosterone, defined as within the lowest quartile of clinical range defined by the laboratory (<14.8 nmol/L) or fT 3 (<4.3 pmol/L), subclinical high cortisol, defined as
Lindsey E. Slavin, Tess M. Palmateer, Trent A. Petrie, and E. Whitney G. Moore
sensitivity established in prior research ( Kroenke et al., 2003 ; Manea et al., 2016 ), the cut-off score was set at three or higher for a clinical classification and two for a subclinical classification. Cronbach’s alpha for the current sample was .79. Perceived Stress Scale The 10-item Perceived Stress
Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura, and for the SESSA Research Group
) related to cognition (prefrontal cortex, cingulum, hippocampus, parahippocampal, entorhinal cortex, and cerebellum). Materials and Methods Participants and Sample Size The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA) is an ongoing population-based observational study conducted in
Sarah Gehman, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Signe Caksa, Sara E. Rudolph, Julie M. Hughes, Margaret Garrahan, Adam S. Tenforde, Mary L. Bouxsein, and Kristin L. Popp
menstrual status, BMI, physical activity, or caloric intake between groups ( Guest & Barr, 2005 ). These findings, in conjunction with our data, suggest that even mild or subclinical disordered eating attitudes may signal the need for early intervention to reduce risk of multiple BSIs. We used two
Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle, and Erika Nelson-Wong
subclinical group, with increased risk for developing LBP. Another longitudinal study showed standing-intolerant individuals reported 50% more episodes of clinical LBP than standing-tolerant individuals, had higher recurrence rates, and were 3 times more likely to seek medical care for an acute LBP episode