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Luc J. Martin, Jessi Wilson, M. Blair Evans and Kevin S. Spink

Although cliques are often referenced in sporting circles, they have received little attention in the group dynamics literature. This is surprising given their potential influence on group-related processes that could ultimately influence team functioning (e.g., Carron & Eys, 2012). The present study examined competitive athletes’ perceptions of cliques using semistructured interviews with 18 (nine female, nine male) intercollegiate athletes (Mage = 20.9, SD = 1.6) from nine sport teams. Athletes described the formation of cliques as an inevitable and variable process that was influenced by a number of antecedents (e.g., age/tenure, proximity, similarity) and ultimately shaped individual and group outcomes such as isolation, performance, and sport adherence. Further, athletes described positive consequences that emerged when existing cliques exhibited more inclusive behaviors and advanced some areas of focus for the management of cliques within sport teams. Results are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

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Sara Long Anderson, Kate Zager, Ronald K. Hetzler, Marcia Nahikian-Nelms and Georganne Syler

The intensity and effort of bodybuilding training suggest an overinvestment in body shape and physical appearance, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for developing eating disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorder tendencies among a sample of collegiate male bodybuilders (BB, n = 68) and controls (C, n = 50) (nonbodybuilders), using the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 (EDI-2). T tests were used to test the hypothesis that bodybuilders' scores would be higher than those of controls. The mean scores on the EDI-2 did not indicate the presence of eating disorder tendencies for either group. Controls scored significantly higher than bodybuilders on the Body Dissatisfaction scale. Results indicate that when the EDI-2 is used, college-age male bodybuilders are not shown to be more likely to have eating disorders than a group of college-age male controls.

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Jade L. Morris, Andy Daly-Smith, Margaret A. Defeyter, Jim McKenna, Steve Zwolinsky, Scott Lloyd, Melissa Fothergill and Pamela L. Graham

, school-based interventions typically display only small effects and short-term behavioral changes; clearly, some children respond powerfully, whereas others do not. This undermines any presumptions about universal benefit arising from any provision and justifies looking at subgroup responsiveness within

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Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti and Roberta Penge

combined LD and DCD, a relationship between a global motor impairment and poor handwriting legibility and speed. The second research question relates to whether differences in the motor impairment of our two LD subgroups (LD-only and combined LD–DCD children) may be associated to differences in learning

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Bruno G.G. da Costa, Kelly S. da Silva, Rafael M. da Costa, Edio L. Petroski, Isabela C. Back, Paulo H.A. Guerra and Luiz R.A. de Lima

prevent further risk among these subgroups. In a previous study, healthy children from 12 countries in have been shown to engage in 8.6 (±1.2) hours per day in accelerometer-measured SB, while 54.2% of the sample engaged in more than 2 hours per day in screen-time activities ( 19 ). The International

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Gareth N. Sandford, Sian V. Allen, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

production of studies from the more endurance-based 800-m running subgroup. Third, although the 800 and 1500 m have historically been considered as “similar events,” 2 this belief may require reassessment in light of recent tactical evolution. 1 Indeed, heterogeneity of performance standard within “elite

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Katherine Reta Devonshire-Gill and Kevin Ian Norton

each of the BMI and sociodemographic subgroups in this study using Definition 1. With the power inherent in the size of the aggregated sample, it was possible to disaggregate the dataset to examine PA trends in selected socioeconomic subgroups in order to detect patterns that may have been obscured in

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Senia Smoot Reinert, Allison L. Kinney, Kurt Jackson, Wiebke Diestelkamp and Kimberly Bigelow

, 4 – 6 , 11 , 12 While the Limits of Stability test has shown differences in performance between various clinical populations and between young and older adults, little is known about its ability to characterize differences between subgroups of older adults. As other fields of study commonly

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Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

calculation of literature percentages, the total number of articles for SMM and SMW was based on the number of articles that specifically addressed these respective subgroups combined with the number of articles that addressed both SMM and SMW. Consequently, 19 articles addressed SMM, 15 , 18 , 20 , 24 , 26

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

appropriate to quantify each runner’s biomechanical changes associated with running-related fatigue. This premise is supported by other research investigations showing that subgroups of runners with different training backgrounds based on weekly mileage or race performance exhibit specific “typical” movement