The ecological model was used to examine the relationship between subject matter expertise and the conduct of a teacher’s instructional task system. Nine teachers were studied when teaching activities with which they self-reported as having higher or lower levels of subject matter expertise. The findings suggest that higher levels of expertise by teachers in certain areas result in two specific changes in the academic work of physical education. The first is a provision of more tasks, and particularly more extending tasks, while the second is an accountability focus centered more so on the quality of the performance than a level of participation or effort.
Peter A. Hastie and Nik Vlaisavljevic
This study describes and interprets (a) a student teacher’s decisions about task content and content progression across an elementary and high school sport unit and (b) those aspects of his pedagogical content knowledge that he used to explain and justify his decisions. The student teacher’s pedagogical content knowledge of dividing and sequencing subject matter can be summarized briefly: first, tell about the biomechanically efficient body position, and second, play games. Both the student teacher’s decisions and pedagogical content knowledge and guidelines for content progression that are in the curriculum literature are interpreted by using broad theoretical perspectives of knowledge and learning that pervade educational thought. Taken-for-granted perspectives that knowledge and learning are molecular are questioned, and the potential of more holistic, nonlinear perspectives is considered.
Judith H. Placek, Sarah A. Doolittle, Thomas A. Ratliffe, Patt Dodds, Penelope A. Portman and Kathy M. Pinkham
This study described 476 recruits’ physical education backgrounds and beliefs about the purposes for physical education. Beliefs about purposes are formed in part by physical education experiences and are important to examine because they are difficult to change and because they influence students’ receptivity to teacher education. Most recruits recalled programs that focused on traditional team sports, games, and fitness programs, with less emphasis on individual sports and expressive or noncompetitive activities. Few differences by sex, race, or socioeconomic status were found. Recruits’ reported purposes were coded into nine categories; the top purposes were learning skills, named specific activities, and fitness. The discussion focuses on the possibility of the existence of a de facto national curriculum and factors to consider if changes in physical education curriculum are desired.
Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich
The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.
Michael A. Odio, Patty Raube Keller and Dana Drew Shaw
students for internships through interviews with three subject matter experts with extensive knowledge and experience with Title IX in higher education. Interview Procedures The three subject matter experts interviewed for this article were Marissa W. Pollick, J.D.; Sarah Leyshock, J.D.; and Karrah Miller
Brent D. Slife
Behavioral science researchers have long acknowledged that their methods have certain technical limits: measurement errors, design restrictions, problems of inference, and other factors. Within these limits, however, many researchers have assumed that their methods provide truthful, accurate, or objective renderings of their subject matter. The problem is that the philosophical limitations of method qua method are often overlooked. Method is not a neutral tool of inquiry but a biased metatheory about how to adjudicate theories and findings. This bias is most evident in the modernist foundations for traditional science. Three modernist assumptions are described as integral to the philosophy and practice of traditional behavioral science: universalism, materialism, and atomism. For purposes of contrast and to facilitate conversation about these assumptions, three postmodern assumptions are also described: contextuality, lived experience, and radical holism. Neither set of assumptions is advocated. Rather, an evaluation of any method and its philosophy is advocated in light of the questions being asked and subject matter being investigated.
Naomi Fejgin and Ronit Hanegby
Teacher participation in school decision-making processes is considered one of the major components of school dynamics. It is not known, however, whether all teachers participate in the process to the same extent. This study examines whether teacher participation is related to school dynamics and to subject matter taught. In a 3-step sequential model, the relative contribution of background variables, school measures, school dynamics, and subject matter taught to teacher participation was estimated. Findings showed that school dynamics had the strongest effect on teacher participation, but the effect was not the same for all teachers. Physical educators participated in school decision-making processes less than did other teachers. Physical educators in dynamic schools reported a higher degree of participation than physical educators in non-dynamic schools but a lower degree of participation compared to other teachers in dynamic schools.
Merrill J. Melnick and Donald F. Sabo
An analysis of the 434 free communications by the 575 presenters at the first seven annual meetings of NASSS (1980–1986) reveals several important patterns and trends with respect to (a) number of free communications, (b) number of presenters, (c) presenter’s sex, (d) presenter’s institutional affiliation, and (e) dual and multiple authorships. A classification of the free communications by subject matter reveals which research topics are of current interest to sport sociologists. Implications of these data for understanding the current stage of development of the subfield are discussed in relation to Mullins’ four-stage developmental model for scientific specialties.
Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, David Bellar, Christine Brooks and Terry Crawford
In recent years, large scale sport organizations and national governing bodies have produced coaching education programs to prepare coaches to teach and mentor athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine: a) track & field coaches’ familiarity with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, b) the alignment of United States Track & Field (USATF) Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, and c) the alignment of USATF Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with coaches’ perceived needs for subject matter training. A 39-item survey was administered during a USATF certification course to measure coaches’ familiarity and perceptions. The results showed the vast majority of coaches (75.2%) were not familiar with the National Standards. At the time of assessment, the Developmental, Level I, and Level II courses were partially aligned with 25 of 40 standards at the Level 1, Level 3, or Level 5 accreditation levels. The courses were not aligned with 15 of 40 standards at any accreditation level. The majority of deficiencies existed in Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention, Domain 7: Organization and Administration, and Domain 8: Evaluation. While the USATF coaching education curriculum is partially aligned with many, but not all, of the national standards, the curriculum appears to contain subject matter training that coaches perceived as needed. Curricular revisions, including future directions of the USATF coaching education program, such as new courses and innovative use of technology, are presented.
John H. Hoover and Michael G. Wade
This paper traces the rare intertwining of motor learning theory and research undertaken with mentally retarded (MR) individuals. Some of the broad themes in the research are outlined from a historical context, and their impact on motor learning in MR persons is examined. If for no other reason than the sheer volume of the work, traditional information processing theory is emphasized within its historical context. The review treats as subject matter the main theoretical developments leading to the adoption of the information processing model. Rationale for the widespread use of the model to account for rather than describe the performance of MR persons is outlined, particularly as it relates to theoretical development. Further, some comment on the state of knowledge is added along with conjecture about the future of motor control research with MR individuals.