The aims of this study were to examine the level of exercise among elderly people with regard to the current Norwegian recommendations, demographic correlates of exercise, and the relationship between exercise and subjective health among elderly men and women. A representative sample of 3,770 Norwegian men and women between 65 and 97 years of age (mean 75 years) completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 83.4%. Results showed that 6% of the participants exercise at the level recommended. The oldest old (>80 years), those who have an illness and use medication, and individuals with lower levels of education and income are the least active segments of the sample. After adjusting for age, marital status, income, and education, results showed that exercise at moderate intensity 3–4 days per week is a significant predictor for positive subjective health.
Nina Waaler Loland
Joanna Edel McHugh and Brian A. Lawlor
Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults.
As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week.
Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week.
We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.
Sanna Takkinen, Timo Suutama and Isto Ruoppila
This study examined longitudinally the predictive value of physical activity for a sense of meaning in life and for self-rated health and functioning. The study was part of the Evergreen Project in Jyväskylä, Finland. A representative sample (N = 198) of elderly persons born between 1904 and 1913 was interviewed in 1988 and followed up in 1996. The interviews dealt with physical, psychological, and social functioning. The interview questions selected for this study dealt with the intensity of physical activity, meaning in life, and self-rated health and functioning. Longitudinal models showed that physical activity had a positive effect on both meaning in life and self-rated health and functioning. Physical activity and meaning in life also had indirect effects on self-rated health and functioning.
Philip von Rosen and Maria Hagströmer
Background: This study investigates the association between self-rated health and the time spent in sedentary behavior (SB), low light-intensity physical activity (LLPA), high light-intensity physical activity (HLPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), by controlling for demographics, socioeconomic status, and chronic diseases. Methods: A total of 1665 participants (55% women) completed a questionnaire about demographics, chronic diseases, and anthropometric characteristics and provided objective physical activity data on time in SB, LLPA, HLPA, and MVPA, using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer. Association between self-rated health and activity data was explored in a compositional data analysis. Results: The multinomial logistic regression analysis showed a significantly lower time spent in MVPA in proportion to time in other movement behaviors (SB, LLPA, and HLPA) for participants who rated their health as alright or poor compared with excellent (P < .001). Participants with poor, compared with excellent health, spent about a third of the time in MVPA (17 vs 50 min), marginally higher time in HLPA (134 vs 125 min), more time in LLPA (324 vs 300 min), and similar time in SB (383 vs 383 min), accounting for confounders and time in other movement behaviors. Conclusions: Promoting MVPA, as opposed to time in other movement behaviors, is suggested to be beneficial for excellent self-rated health.
Sarah Spengler and Alexander Woll
Little is known about the relationship between physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents. The purpose of this study was 1) to quantify the predictive power of greater physical activity on higher HRQOL in adolescents and 2) to analyze whether the prediction is better for the sports club setting than for the leisure time setting.
Within the framework of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents and the “Motorik-Modul,” 1828 German adolescents aged 11−17 years completed a questionnaire concerning the amount of weekly physical activity at school, in sports clubs, and during leisure time. The KINDL-R questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. Linear and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the effects of physical activity on HRQOL.
In regression analyses controlling for sociostructural variables, greater general physical activity was a significant predictor of higher HRQOL (P < .001). While greater physical activity in sports clubs significantly predicted higher HRQOL, greater physical activity during leisure time predicted higher HRQOL only to a certain level. Overall, the level of explained variance was low.
Being physically active especially in sports clubs is positively linked to higher HRQOL of adolescents.
Ann-Sophie Van Hoecke, Christophe Delecluse, An Bogaerts and Filip Boen
This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of multiple physical activity counseling strategies on subjective health among older adults.
Sedentary older adults (n = 442) were randomized to 3 programs: (1) a one-contact referral to locally organized physical activities, (2) a one-contact provision of a walking program, (3) a 10-week multiple-contact physical activity coaching based on the Self-Determination Theory. Self-reports on well-being, trait anxiety and physical activity were completed at baseline (pretest), and 10 weeks after (10-week follow-up), 1 year after (1-year follow-up) and 2 years after (2-year follow-up) pretests.
All 3 programs yielded improvements in well-being and trait anxiety from pretest to 10-week follow-up and to 1-year follow-up. From pretest to 2-year follow-up, no changes emerged in well-being whereas trait anxiety increased significantly. Changes over time in well-being and anxiety were not significantly different between the programs. Changes in physical activity contributed significantly to the prediction of changes in well-being and trait anxiety.
The findings demonstrate the year-round effectiveness of physical activity counseling on subjective health among older adults, irrespective of counseling strategy. However, a relapse to baseline level occurred 2 years after the intervention. Physical activity appears to be an important determinant of older adults’ well-being.
Kara A. Strand, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Warren D. Franke and Marc J. Peterson
Exergaming may be an effective strategy to increase physical activity participation among rural older adults. This pilot project examined the effects of a 24-wk exergaming and wellness program (8 wk onsite exergaming, 16-wk wellness newsletter intervention) on physical activity participation and subjective health in 46 rural older adults. Sociodemographic data and self-reported physical activity were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Cochran’s Q, respectively. Qualitative data were reviewed, categorized on the basis of theme, and tabulated for frequency. Increased physical activity and perceived health were the most reported perceived positive changes. Significant increases in physical activity participation were maintained among participants who were physically inactive at baseline. Best-liked features were physical activity and socialization. Findings suggest that this pilot exergaming and wellness program is effective in increasing physical activity in sedentary rural older adults, increasing socialization, and increasing subjective physical health among rural older adults.
Volker Cihlar and Sonia Lippke
al., 2012 ; Hansen, Kolle, Dyrstad, Holme, & Anderssen, 2012 ), resources have to be taken into account: One such resource is subjective health . People who feel more challenged regarding their health status may no longer be able to realize previously performed physical activities (e.g., Golubic et
.M. , Lima , M.L. , Bratt , C. , & Abrams , D. ( 2015 ). ‘Being old and ill’ across different countries: Social status, age identification and older people’s subjective health . Psychology & Health, 30 ( 6 ), 699 – 714 . PubMed ID: 25000364 doi:10.1080/08870440903440699 10
Kim Gammage, Desi McEwan, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
modules of 90 min each (30 min of coaching, 60 min of physical activity for the physical activity coaching group, or 90 min of physical activity for the physical activity group). Questionnaires assessing physical activity and subjective health were completed prior to participation, immediately after