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Neal R. Glaviano and Susan Saliba

poor outcomes. 14 Patient-reported disability and functional scales are common clinical and research assessments to evaluate the subjective function in those with PFP. Although a variety of patient-reported outcomes are used within the PFP population, the Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) and Activities

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Phillip M. Bellinger, Cameron Ferguson, Tim Newans and Clare L. Minahan

performance, 7 – 9 practitioners have incorporated wellness questionnaires into their monitoring practices. 4 , 10 – 12 As such, it is thought that subjective wellness scales represent a time-efficient and noninvasive method for practitioners to gain information related to a player’s wellness status and his

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Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

well-being, the question of the direction of effect is not fully understood, that is, whether volunteering increases subjective well-being or whether happier people are more likely to volunteer. Strong associations have been established for volunteering ( Gimenez-Nadal & Molina, 2015 ), including sport

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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

-defense program. In addition, perceived self-efficacy could be enhanced through a self-defense training program that utilizes an implicit versus explicit learning style. Developing a training environment that raises self-efficacy may lead to an increase in positive affect and subjective well-being for the

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Andrew D. Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray and Hugh Fullagar

football codes to monitor changes in players’ training and match performance throughout a season. In addition to monitoring external load via GPS and accelerometers, monitoring subjective ratings of wellness and mood states before each training session may provide information about a player’s psychological

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

’ recovery, both objective (internal and external) and subjective markers should be used. 13 , 14 There is currently a dearth of scientific research investigating the relationship between salivary cortisol, training load, and subjective markers of recovery in rugby union. Stress can be both psychological

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Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner and Joerg Koenigstorfer

atmosphere in the city during event hosting positively ( Pfitzner & Koenigstorfer, 2016 ). The host city’s atmosphere—particularly liminoid elements that have demonstrable sociocultural effects ( Chalip, 2006 , 2018 )—may be one crucial factor that positively influences residents’ subjective well

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

managers and sport management researchers. The three major perspectives of well-being are subjective, eudaimonic, and social well-being; each provide insights on hedonism, personal growth, or social relations, respectively ( Kim, Kim, & Kim, 2017 ). This work is focused on subjective well-being (i

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Gerald Barber and Charles T. Heise

Although not well validated, physicians frequently use subjective estimates of exercise ability to assess clinical status and therapeutic results. This study employed a standardized questionnaire and cardiopulmonary exercise test to compare the results of subjective estimates by 211 patients (mean age 13.9 yrs) with objective measurements of exercise ability. Questionnaire data correlated with measured maximal oxygen consumption. Individuals thought to be below average had a maximal oxygen consumption of 21±6 ml/kg/min. Those thought to have average fitness had a maximal oxygen consumption of 26±8 ml/kg/min, and those thought to be above average had a maximal oxygen consumption of 30±7 ml/kg/min. There was a great degree of overlap and scatter of these data, however, such that questionnaire data significantly overestimated exercise ability in 67% and underestimated it in 3% of the subjects. In only 30% of the subjects did the subjective estimate of exercise ability correspond with objectively measured exercise ability. It was concluded that subjective estimates are unreliable and should not be used in assessing the functional status of an individual patient, but subjective estimates may give some idea of objective capabilities in large population studies.

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Edward MeAuley and Kerry S. Courneya

This paper documents the development and validation of the three-factor Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale (SEES), a measure of global psychological responses to the stimulus properties of exercise. Two of these factors correspond to the positive and negative poles associated with psychological health, Positive Weil-Being and Psychological Distress, whereas the third factor represents subjective indicants of Fatigue. The three-factor structure originally established by exploratory factor analysis using young adults was also supported in middle-aged exercising adults using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Moreover, convergent and discriminant validity for the SEES subscales was demonstrated by examining relations with measures of affect regularly employed in exercise domain. The SEES may represent a useful starting point for more thoroughly examining exercise and subjective responses at the global level, and these dimensions of the scale may represent possible antecedents of specific affective responsivity.