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The Causal Effect of Voluntary Roles in Sport on Subjective Well-Being in European Countries

Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward

well-being, the question of the direction of effect is not fully understood, that is, whether volunteering increases subjective well-being or whether happier people are more likely to volunteer. Strong associations have been established for volunteering ( Gimenez-Nadal & Molina, 2015 ), including sport

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Implicit Versus Explicit Self-Defense Training on Self-Efficacy, Affect, and Subjective Well-Being

Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

-defense program. In addition, perceived self-efficacy could be enhanced through a self-defense training program that utilizes an implicit versus explicit learning style. Developing a training environment that raises self-efficacy may lead to an increase in positive affect and subjective well-being for the

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The Impact of Atmosphere in the City on Subjective Well-Being of Rio de Janeiro Residents During (vs. Before) the 2014 FIFA World Cup

Andrea Schlegel, Rebecca Pfitzner, and Joerg Koenigstorfer

atmosphere in the city during event hosting positively ( Pfitzner & Koenigstorfer, 2016 ). The host city’s atmosphere—particularly liminoid elements that have demonstrable sociocultural effects ( Chalip, 2006 , 2018 )—may be one crucial factor that positively influences residents’ subjective well-being

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Sport and Happiness: Understanding the Relations Among Sport Consumption Activities, Long- and Short-Term Subjective Well-Being, and Psychological Need Fulfillment

Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

managers and sport management researchers. The three major perspectives of well-being are subjective, eudaimonic, and social well-being; each provide insights on hedonism, personal growth, or social relations, respectively ( Kim, Kim, & Kim, 2017 ). This work is focused on subjective well-being (i

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Associations Between Physical Function and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults From Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Results From the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE)

Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans, and Paul Kowal

participation in social or leisure activities, resulting in feelings of isolation ( Blazer, 2003 ). Although the mental health benefits of high physical function are relatively well studied in high-income countries, it is unclear whether specific functional measures are similarly linked with subjective well-being

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Case Study: Long-Term Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Diet Impairs Performance and Subjective Well-Being in a World-Class Vegetarian Long-Distance Triathlete

Iñigo Mujika

communication with the author. CHO = carbohydrate; HCHO = high carbohydrate; LCHF = low carbohydrate, high fat; W = average power output. Subjective Well-Being The athlete reported that the months on the LCHF diet were mentally very tough: He had many psychic slumps and some feelings of depression. He

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Strength Training Effects on Subjective Well-Being and Physical Function in the Elderly

Shannon L. Mihalko and Edward McAuley

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine (a) the effects of upper body high-intensity strength training on muscular strength, activities of daily living (ADLs), and subjective well-being within an aging population, and (b) whether changes in strength were related to subsequent changes in subjective well-being and ADLs. The main effects of the training program were significant for all five individual muscle groups examined, indicating that subjects who participated in the strength program had greater increases in muscular strength than did controls. There was limited support for the contention that strength training enhances subjective well-being and ADLs in older adults. Strength gains were related to moderate reductions in negative affect, greater satisfaction with life, and higher ADLs. Findings are discussed in terms of design and measurement improvements, the need to focus research efforts on multiple components of fitness in relation to subjective well-being, and relations among strength and ADLs in the elderly.

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Physical Activity and Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

Aphrodite Stathi, Kenneth R. Fox, and James McKenna

Using a qualitative approach, the dimensions of subjective well-being of active older adults were outlined and ways identified through which they might be influenced by participation in physical activities. One-to-one and group interviews were used to collect the data. Using cross-case analysis, 17 main themes were identified. The following main dimensions emerged: developmental, material, physical, mental, and social well-being. The findings indicated that physical activity influences all dimensions of the subjective well-being of older adults, with the exception of material well-being. Physical activity appears to contribute to the mental health of older adults through maintenance of a busy and active life, mental alertness, positive attitude toward life and avoidance of stress, negative function, and isolation. The complexity of subjective well-being and the multiple roles of physical activity stress the need to extend qualitative research to sedentary older adults and the institutionalized elderly to explore the relationship between well-being and physical activity in later life.

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Exercise as an Intervention for Enhancing Subjective Well-Being in an HIV-1 Population

Curt L. Lox, Edward MeAuley, and R. Shawn Tucker

The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of regular exercise participation as an intervention for enhancing subjective well-being in an HIV-1 population. Specifically, this study investigated the effects of a 12-week exercise intervention on physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and life satisfaction. Participants (N = 33) were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training group (n = 11), a resistance weight-training group (n = 12), or a stretching/flexibility control group ( n = 10). Results indicated that both aerobic and weight-training exercise interventions enhanced physical self-efficacy, positive and negative mood, and satisfaction with life. Conversely, control participants experienced declines in each of these variables. Taken together, the findings seem to suggest that exercise may be one therapeutic modality capable of enhancing components of subjective well-being and should be considered a complimentary therapy for treating the psychological and emotional manifestations associated with a positive HIV-1 diagnosis.

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Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being and Effects of Physical Activity in Chinese Older Adults

Po-Wen Ku, Jim McKenna, and Kenneth R. Fox

Subjective well-being (SWB) and its relationship with physical activity have not been systematically investigated in older Chinese people. This study explored these issues using qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 23 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 55–78 y, 12 women); 16 were physically active and 7 physically inactive. Using cross-case analyses, 7 dimensions of SWB emerged: physical, psychological, developmental, material, spiritual, sociopolitical, and social. Although elements of SWB may be shared across cultures, specific distinctions were identified. Active respondents reported the unique contributions of physical activity to the physical, psychological, developmental, and social elements of SWB. The findings suggest that physical activity could enhance the quality of life in Chinese older adults.