Although the topic of performance leadership and management has been and continues to be a popular area of inquiry in sport ( Fletcher & Arnold, 2015 ), it is apparent that gaps remain in our understanding of this area. In particular, little is known about followers’ and subordinates’ perceptions
Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Jennifer A. Hobson
James Stephenson, Colum Cronin and Amy E. Whitehead
identification of subordinate themes. • As the clustering of themes took place, the connections to the primary transcript were re-examined to ensure fit with the data. • Following this, a table of superordinate themes was created with clear links to subordinate themes. Once again, the researcher team examined
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Allison B. Smith, Cheryl R. Rode and Robin Hardin
asking about their personal life ( Lampman et al., 2009 ). Just as incivility can be expressed in a number of ways, sexual harassment can also be expressed nonverbally, verbally, and by physical actions of the subordinate toward the person of power. Written notes, e-mails, and course evaluations are
By virtue of their formal role in sport organizations, sport administrators are responsible for empowering subordinates to establish and achieve goals. The extent of their leadership skills will largely dictate the outcome of their actions with subordinates. After nearly a century of research on leadership, the question still remains as to what makes an effective leader. There are no absolute truths and no general panaceas about effective managerial leadership. However, a careful review of the literature reveals that a lot more is known about this topic than is usually acknowledged. The purpose of this article is to (a) express a perspective regarding leadership, (b) draw lessons from the leadership literature, (c) gain insights from research about leadership effectiveness, and (d) infer from this literature prescriptions for practicing sport administrators. The article reviews the research literature that pertains to (a) leadership influence and power, (b) leadership traits and skills, (c) leadership behaviors, (d) situational leadership, and (e) charismatic and transformational leadership.
Aubrey Kent and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study tested the propositions that (a) perceived leader-member exchange quality (LMX) between second level managers (e.g., associate, assistant athletic directors) and their subordinates would be associated with perceived transformational leadership behaviors (TL) of the athletic director, and (b) subordinates' organizational commitment (OC) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) would be correlated with both perceived TL and LMX. Seventy-five third tier employees of a large Midwestern university responded to the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-MLQ (Bass, 1985); LMX-7 (Graen, Novak, & Sommerkamp, 1982), an organizational citizenship scale (MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1991); and an organizational commitment scale (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Correlational and regression analyses showed that the three dimensions of TL were significantly correlated with LMX. Additionally, the dimensions of TL and LMX were differentially related to OC and OCB.
Alison J. Doherty and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the leader behavior of interuniversity athletic administrators according to Bass's (1985) transformational/transactional leadership model. The impact of that behavior on subordinates’ satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, departmental commitment, and extra effort was also examined. A sample of head coaches from Ontario universities (N = 114) completed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X (Bass & Avolio, 1991) with regard to their athletic administrators. The resultant profile was one of predominantly transformational as opposed to transactional or nonleadership behavior. Furthermore, leader-centered behavior (idealized influence, attributed charisma) was used more often than subordinate-centered behavior (individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation). Coaches' satisfaction with leadership, perceived leader effectiveness, and extra effort were positively and strongly associated with transformational leadership and contingent reward behavior, whereas negative relationships were observed for management-by-exception (passive) and nonleadership behaviors. Leader behavior was not associated with the coaches' commitment to the athletic department.
Since 2010, major college athletics departments have expanded a trend of hiring former beat writers to the hybrid position of sportswriter/public relations (PR) practitioner. This case study explored the routines and roles of a former sportswriter in his PR position at the University of Washington. After observing how he moved through social and professional settings and occupational routines, the author identifies 3 themes surrounding his routines. The themes are sport journalist, PR practitioner, and subordinate. Given the historic antagonism between journalists and PR practitioners, the routines are sometimes at odds with one another. The results indicate that the routines affect content while engaging stakeholders.
Doune Macdonald and Richard Tinning
Drawing on evidence from an Australian physical education teacher education (PETE) program, this paper argues that the preparation of physical education teachers implicates PETE in the trend to proletarianize teachers’ work at the same time that national claims for increased professionalization are being made. The core physical education program and its PETE component was characterized by narrow utilitarian, sexist, scientistic, and technicist approaches to the field of physical education. More specifically, the PETE program represented teaching as technical and unproblematic rather than as a critical and intellectual endeavor, and its faculty and students were accorded a subordinate status within the department.
Over the past two decades, policy analysis has developed as a collection of formal methods to enhance policy design and implementation. Interpretive and critical methods for policy analysis have recently been advocated as a way to clarify the parameters of policy problems and thereby improve policy formulation and implementation. The heuristic basis for interpretive and critical policy analysis is consistent with contemporary findings in the psychology of decision making. Formal methods for interpretive and critical policy analysis are elaborated and illustrated via application to the drafting of the U.S. Amateur Sports Act (PL 95-606). It is shown that the methods illumine decision processes that have caused sport development to become subordinate to the administrative rationalization of American Olympic sport governance.
Dallas Branch Jr.
Intercollegiate athletics has come under increasing scrutiny. Questions of leadership and the NCAA’s Presidents’ Commission reflect new levels of exposure and commitment to clean the athletic house. The problem of defining the academic/athletic balance in big-time college sports has polarized faculty, administrators, and athletic leaders at many colleges and universities. The purpose of this study was to examine athletic director and selected assistant perceptions of leader behavior to determine whether their perceptions contributed significantly to the prediction of intercollegiate organizational effectiveness. Findings indicate that effective athletic organizations have leaders who are more predisposed to goal and task accomplishment than to developing good interpersonal relationships with their subordinates. Contemporary leadership theory and management philosophy suggests that organizations that can accomplish both are most effective. Athletic directors may want to adjust their leadership behaviors to meet the managerial demands of today’s intercollegiate athletic program.