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Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price and Eduardo B. Fontes

Chronic drug misuse is a worldwide public health problem. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-V 2013) classifies drug addiction as substance use disorders (SUD) and addictive disorders. Several harmful consequences of SUD have been

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Kerri McCaul, Joseph Baker and John K. Yardley

Adolescence is characterized as a period of change and adaptation typically marked by a decline in physical activity participation and accompanied by an increase in substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among the type (team and individual activity) and intensity (high, medium, and low intensity) of physical activity and substance use (tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use, and binge drinking) in a sample of 738 adolescents. Results indicated differing relationships among study variables depending on the type and intensity of physical activity and the type of substance used For instance, a positive relationship was found for physical activity intensity and alcohol use, but negative relationships were found for physical activity and tobacco and marijuana use. Collectively, the results reveal that the relationships between physical activity type and intensity and substance use are more complex than previously believed.

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Eric A. Storch, Jason B. Storch, Adrienne H. Kovacs, Aubree Okun and Eric Welsh

Although there has been little research examining religiosity in athletes, recent evidence suggests that it may play an important role in the lives of some athletes. The present study investigated the relationship of intrinsic religiosity to substance use in intercollegiate athletes. The Intrinsic Religiosity subscale of the Duke Religion Index, the Alcohol Problems subscale of the Personality Assessment Inventory, and two questions assessing marijuana and other drug use were completed by 105 varsity athletes. Findings indicated that intrinsic religiosity was inversely associated with alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use. Implications of these findings for sport practitioners are discussed.

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Eric G. Donahue, Paule Miquelon, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet, André Buist and Robert J. Vallerand

Very little research has been done so far on the psychological determinants of performance-enhancing substance use in sports. The purpose of this study was to propose and test a motivational model of performance-enhancing substance use with elite athletes (N = 1,201). The model posits that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport predict, respectively, positive and negative sportspersonship orientations, which in turn negatively predict the use of performance-enhancing substances. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward sport, sportspersonship orientations, and performance-enhancing substance use in the last 12 months. Findings supported the motivational model. The present findings support the role of intrinsic motivation and sportspersonship orientations in preventing athletes from engaging in unethical behavior such as the use of performance-enhancing substances. Future research should seek to replicate this model with professional and Olympic athletes.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang

focus on the development of their athletes as human beings ( Jowett, 2005 ). This not only includes promoting character development, ethical behavior, and a balanced lifestyle, but also recognizing the signs and symptoms of mental illness and substance use ( Biggin et al., 2017 ). Collegiate coaches are

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Scott A. Graupensperger, Alex J. Benson and M. Blair Evans

the paradigm may also provide opportunities to assess behavior directly. Researchers could manipulate norms for risky behaviors in less-risky directions (e.g., manipulating endorsement of substance use behavior downward) and assess behavior at a lagged time point to compare with a control condition

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Marina Galante, Rose Marie Ward and Robert Weinberg

Weight-conscious drinking is the use of disordered eating behaviors in anticipation of or as compensation for calories consumed during alcohol use. The aim of the current study is to assess the relationship between weight-conscious drinking, athletic status, and sport type. Participants were 295 college students (82 male and 213 female; Mage = 20.10) from a midsized Midwestern university. Participants completed an online survey that included items assessing alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). In comparison with nonathletes, student-athletes had lower EAT-26 and CEBRACS scores; RAPI scores did not differ between the two groups. Lean-sport athletes differed concerning CEBRACS diet/exercise subscales in comparison with nonlean-sport athletes.

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

are high rates of performance- and appearance-enhancing substance use (including both supplements and pharmaceuticals, hereinafter abbreviated to substance use when referring to a combination of both), mostly in the form of laxatives (e.g.,  Lupattelli et al., 2015 ). Thus, unarguably, eating disorder

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Marcus Ngantcha, Eric Janssen, Emmanuelle Godeau, Virginie Ehlinger, Olivier Le-Nezet, François Beck and Stanislas Spilka

, compared with those belonging to higher SES. 13 , 14 A poor mental health has been demonstrated to be associated with ST: people with lower depression status tend to declare lesser ST. 15 Several studies also assessed the relationship between SES and substance uses 16 , 17 , whereas others outlined the

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Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant and Daniel N. Allen

from the National Institute on Drug Abuse and National Institute of Mental Health to reduce substance use and other mental health concerns in adolescents and adults (e.g.,  Azrin et al., 1994 , 2001 ; Donohue et al., 2014 ). The strength-based therapeutic style of providers is similar in TOPPS and