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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

aged 65 years or older is projected to increase from 524 million in 2010 to approximately 1.5 billion in 2050 ( World Health Organization, 2011 ). The increasing number of older adults has raised academic interest in ‘successfulaging to a public health priority and stimulated a surge in research

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Yoshiyuki Ohno, Rie Aoki, Akiko Tamakoshi, Takashi Kawamura, Kenji Wakai, Shuji Hashimoto, Norito Kawakami and Masaki Nagai

To explore successful aging and high social activity in old age, data from a self-administered survey of 5,239 participants aged 65 years or more were analyzed. The questionnaire inquired about physical conditions and lifestyles of Japanese seniors during middle age and their present social activities in 4 regions of Japan in 1993. The authors first defined social activities and then developed a social-activity measure. Next, they examined the association between present social activity and physical conditions and lifestyles during middle age. Data analysis revealed that the most socially active seniors rated themselves as healthy and physically active during middle age. Socially active seniors differed from less active seniors: They had participated in more hobbies during middle age, had higher levels of education, and had had a more varied diet between the ages of 30 and 50. The data suggest that maintaining general health habits and lifestyles from middle age on is important for successful aging and high social activity in old age.

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn and Rylee A. Dionigi

Successful aging has been a central theme within gerontology for over half a century ( Martin & Gillen, 2014 ). However, global population aging and its associated health, economic, and socio-structural challenges ( Bloom, Canning, & Lubet, 2015 ) has raised academic interest in successful aging to

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Joseph Baker, Brad A. Meisner, A. Jane Logan, Ann-Marie Kungl and Patricia Weir

Rowe and Kahn (1987) proposed that successful aging is the balance of three components: absence of disease and disease-related disability, high functional capacity, and active engagement with life. This study examines the relationship between physical activity involvement and successful aging in Canadian older adults using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.1 (N = 12,042). Eleven percent of Canadian older adults were aging successfully, 77.6% were moderately successful, and 11.4% were unsuccessful according to Rowe and Kahn’s criteria. Results indicate that physically active respondents were more than twice as likely to be rated as aging successfully, even after removing variance associated with demographic covariates. These findings provide valuable information for researchers and practitioners interested in age-specific interventions to improve older individuals’ likelihood of aging successfully.

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Edward Archer, Amanda E. Paluch, Robin P. Shook and Steven N. Blair

Successful aging encompasses more than just the prevention of disease and disability; the truly well-lived life is demonstrated by a sense of vitality and independence, freedom from bodily pain, and the continued involvement in meaningful activities. While physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors accelerate the aging process, deliberate exercise and other forms of activity delay and/or prevent the onset of age-related pathologies such as frailty, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and cardiovascular disease. This review surveys the evidence that supports the position that physical activity is a necessary component for the development and maintenance of the physiological resources that are foundational to physical and cognitive functioning and ‘living well’ in one's later years.

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Loretta DiPietro, Teresa E. Seeman, Susan S. Merrill and Lisa F. Berkman

To investigate the association between physical activity and cognitive ability, cross-sectional data from a representative cohort of 1,189 adults (70–79 years old) participating in the MacArthur Study of Successful Aging were examined. The frequency of current house/yardwork and recreational activities was assessed using five categories of responses. A total physical activity score was derived, and cognitive ability was assessed. The total physical activity score showed a modest yet significant bivariate correlation with the total cognitive ability score. In the multivariate analysis, physical activity showed a significant association with the total cognitive ability score, independent of gender, self-rated health, average peak expiratory flow rate, body mass index, number of current social relationships, and visual contacts in the past month. When education was added to the model, however, the effect of physical activity was substantially diminished. Higher levels of physical activity appear to be associated with some cognitive benefits among a population of healthy older adults, although this association is influenced strongly by their joint association with education.

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Simone Ciaccioni, Laura Capranica, Roberta Forte, Helmi Chaabene, Caterina Pesce and Giancarlo Condello

Regular physical activity (PA) is fundamental to promote a successful aging and to improve the quality of life for older people ( Cosco, Prina, Perales, Stephan, & Brayne, 2014 ; Spirduso, Francis, & MacRae, 2005 ; Sun, Norman, & While, 2013 ), whereas physical inactivity has been described as

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Katie E. Cherry, Jennifer Silva Brown, Sangkyu Kim and S. Michal Jazwinski

Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21–44 years), middle-aged (45–64 years), older (65–84 years), and oldest-old adults (85–101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with selfreported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain important determinants of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed.

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Edited by Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

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Rachael C. Stone, Zina Rakhamilova, William H. Gage and Joseph Baker

likely to experience symptoms of depression and chronic diseases ( Baker, Meisner, Logan, Kungl, & Weir, 2009 ; Netz, 2007 ; Taylor, 2014 ). Maintaining these aspects of psychological and physical functioning are vital towards achieving successful aging , which is outlined by maintaining physical