. Runs were performed at a previously established fixed intensity (mean ± SD ; 13.4 ± 0.9 km/hr; 77 ± 4% V ˙ O 2 max ). During both trials, the participants ingested a total of 75 g sucrose (granulated sugar; Silver Spoon, London, United Kingdom) and consumed 1,090 ml of fluid. The sucrose was mixed
Campbell Menzies, Michael Wood, Joel Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Robbie Jones, Kostas Tsintzas, Javier T. Gonzalez, and James A. Betts
Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, and Stuart D.R. Galloway
retain fluid of beverages under euhydrated conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the dose–response effects of individual beverage components (sodium, sucrose, and caffeine) on the hydration potential of beverages, expressed as the BHI, when ingested under standardized
Gregg Afman, Richard M. Garside, Neal Dinan, Nicholas Gant, James A. Betts, and Clyde Williams
Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g·kg−1 sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g·kg−1 NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p < .001). Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion resulted in marked hypoglycemia (< 3.5 mmol·l−1) throughout the first quarter, coincident with impaired sprinting (+0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .01) and layup shooting performance (8.5/11 versus 10.3/11 baskets; p < .01). However, ingestion of either carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate before exercise offset fatigue such that sprinting performance was maintained into the final quarter relative to placebo (Study A: –0.07 ± 0.04 second; p < .01 and Study B: -0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .02), although neither translated into improved skilled (layup shooting) performance. This basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects.
Gareth A. Wallis and Anna Wittekind
The consumption of carbohydrate before, during, and after exercise is a central feature of the athlete’s diet, particularly those competing in endurance sports. Sucrose is a carbohydrate present within the diets of athletes. Whether sucrose, by virtue of its component monosaccharides glucose and fructose, exerts a meaningful advantage for athletes over other carbohydrate types or blends is unclear. This narrative reviews the literature on the influence of sucrose, relative to other carbohydrate types, on exercise performance or the metabolic factors that may underpin exercise performance. Inference from the research to date suggests that sucrose appears to be as effective as other highly metabolizable carbohydrates (e.g., glucose, glucose polymers) in providing an exogenous fuel source during endurance exercise, stimulating the synthesis of liver and muscle glycogen during exercise recovery and improving endurance exercise performance. Nonetheless, gaps exist in our understanding of the metabolic and performance consequences of sucrose ingestion before, during, and after exercise relative to other carbohydrate types or blends, particularly when more aggressive carbohydrate intake strategies are adopted. While further research is recommended and discussed in this review, based on the currently available scientific literature it would seem that sucrose should continue to be regarded as one of a variety of options available to help athletes achieve their specific carbohydrate-intake goals.
Jorn Trommelen, Milou Beelen, Marjan Mullers, Martin J. Gibala, Luc J.C. van Loon, and Naomi M. Cermak
Carbohydrate mouth rinsing during exercise has been suggested to enhance performance of short (45–60 min) bouts of high-intensity (>75% VO2peak) exercise. Recent studies indicate that this performance enhancing effect may be dependent on the prandial state of the athlete. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on ~1-hr time trial performance in both the fasted and fed states. Using a double-blind, crossover design, 14 trained male cyclists (27 ± 6 years; 5.0 ± 0.5 W·kg−1) were selected to perform 4 time trials of ~1 hr (1,032 ± 127 kJ) on a cycle ergometer while rinsing their mouths with a 6.4% sucrose solution (SUC) or a noncaloric sweetened placebo (PLA) for 5 s at the start and at every 12.5% of their set amount of work completed. Two trials were performed in an overnight fasted state and two trials were performed 2 h after consuming a standardized breakfast. Performance time did not differ between any of the trials (fasted-PLA: 68.6 ± 7.2; fasted-SUC: 69.6 ± 7.5; fed-PLA: 67.6 ± 6.6; and fed-SUC: 69.0 ± 6.3 min; Prandial State × Mouth Rinse Solution p = .839; main effect prandial state p = .095; main effect mouth rinse solution p = .277). In line, mean power output and heart rate during exercise did not differ between trials. In conclusion, a sucrose mouth rinse does not improve ~1-hr time trial performance in well-trained cyclists when performed in either the fasted or the fed state.
Rebecca J. Toone and James A. Betts
This study was designed to compare the effects of energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) and carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO) supplements on cycling time-trial performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists and triathletes each completed 2 trials in a randomized and counterbalanced order that were separated by 5–10 d and applied in a double-blind manner. Participants performed a 45-min variable-intensity exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer while ingesting either a 9% CHO solution or a mixture of 6.8% CHO plus 2.2% protein in volumes providing 22 kJ/kg body mass. Participants were then asked to cycle 6 km in the shortest time possible. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were measured every 15 min during exercise, along with measures of substrate oxidation via indirect calorimetry, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion. Mean time to complete the 6-km time trial was 433 ± 21 s in CHO trials and 438 ± 22 s in CHO-PRO trials, which represents a 0.94% (CI: 0.01, 1.86) decrement in performance with the inclusion of protein (p = .048). However, no other variable measured in this study was significantly different between trials. Reducing the quantity of CHO included in a supplement and replacing it with protein may not represent an effective nutritional strategy when the supplement is ingested during exercise. This may reflect the central ergogenic influence of exogenous CHO during such activity.
Yan Burelle, François Péronnet, Denis Massicotte, Guy R. Brisson, and Claude Hillaire-Marcel
The oxidation of 13C-labeled glucose and fructose ingested as a preexercise meal between 180 and 90 min before exercise was measured on 6 subjects when either a placebo or sucrose was ingested during the exercise period. Labeled hexose oxidation, which occurred mainly during the first hour of exercise, was not significantly modified when sucrose was ingested, but exogenous glucose oxidation was significantly higher than exogenous fructose oxidation in both situations. The results suggest that the absorption rate of exogenous hexoses was high when exercise was initiated but diminished thereafter, and that glucose and fructose released from sucrose ingested during exercise did not compete with glucose or fructose ingested before exercise for intestinal absorption, for conversion into glucose in the liver (for fructose), or for uptake and oxidation of glucose in peripheral tissues. However, as already shown, in terms of availability for oxidation of carbohydrates provided by the preexercise meal, glucose should be favored over fructose.
Javier Raya-González, Aaron T. Scanlan, María Soto-Célix, Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández, and Daniel Castillo
ingested a caffeine supplement (6 mg·kg −1 BM) or placebo (6 mg·kg −1 BM of sucrose) dissolved in 250 mL of water in an opaque and unidentifiable red bottle 14 60 minute prior to testing to allow complete absorption into circulation. 15 Bottles were prepared in a randomized fashion by a researcher who
Darren G. Burke, Philip D. Chilibeck, Gianni Parise, Mark A. Tarnopolsky, and Darren G. Candow
α-lipoic acid has been found to enhance glucose uptake into skeletal muscle in animal models. Studies have also found that the co-ingestion of carbohydrate along with creatine increases muscle creatine uptake by a process related to insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid on human skeletal muscle creatine uptake by directly measuring intramuscular concentrations of creatine, phosphocreatine, and ad-enosine triphosphate when creatine monohydrate was co-ingested with α-lipoic acid. Muscle biopsies were acquired from the vastus lateralis m. of 16 male subjects (18–32 y) before and after the experimental intervention. After the initial biopsy, subjects ingested 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate, 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate + 100 g · d−1 of sucrose, or 20 g · d−1 of creatine monohydrate + 100 g · d−1 of sucrose + 1000 mg · d−1 of α-lipoic acid for 5 days. Subjects refrained from exercise and consumed the same balanced diet for 7 days. Body weight increased by 2.1% following the nutritional intervention, with no differences between the groups. There was a significant increase in total creatine concentration following creatine supplementation, with the group ingesting α-lipoic acid showing a significantly greater increase (p < .05) in phosphocreatine (87.6 → 106.2 mmol · kg−1 dry mass [dm]) and total creatine (137.8 → 156.8 mmol · kg−1 dm). These findings indicate that co-ingestion of α-lipoic acid with creatine and a small amount of sucrose can enhance muscle total creatine content as compared to the ingestion of creatine and sucrose or creatine alone.
Darren G. Candow, Natalie C. Burke, T. Smith-Palmer, and Darren G. Burke
The purpose was to compare changes in lean tissue mass, strength, and myof-brillar protein catabolism resulting from combining whey protein or soy protein with resistance training. Twenty-seven untrained healthy subjects (18 female, 9 male) age 18 to 35 y were randomly assigned (double blind) to supplement with whey protein (W; 1.2 g/kg body mass whey protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose power, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male), soy protein (S; 1.2 g/kg body mass soy protein + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) or placebo (P; 1.2 g/kg body mass maltodextrine + 0.3 g/kg body mass sucrose powder, N = 9: 6 female, 3 male) for 6 wk. Before and after training, measurements were taken for lean tissue mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), strength (1-RM for bench press and hack squat), and an indicator of myofbrillar protein catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine). Results showed that protein supplementation during resistance training, independent of source, increased lean tissue mass and strength over isocaloric placebo and resistance training (P < 0.05). We conclude that young adults who supplement with protein during a structured resistance training program experience minimal beneficial effects in lean tissue mass and strength.