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Michael A. Messner and William S. Solomon

This article analyzes the print media’s ideological framing of the 1991 story of boxer Sugar Ray Leonard’s admission of having physically abused his wife and abused cocaine and alcohol. We examined all news stories and editorials on the Leonard story in two major daily newspapers and one national sports daily. We found that all three papers framed the story as a “drug story,” while ignoring or marginalizing the “wife abuse” story. We argue that sports writers utilized an existing ideological “jocks-on-drugs” media package that framed this story as a moral drama of individual sin and public redemption. Finally, we describe and analyze the mechanisms through which the wife abuse story was ignored or marginalized.

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judith A. Nelson, Chloe Tay, Barbara Bruemmer and Adam Drewnowski

Dietary energy density (kcal/g) is defined as available dietary energy per unit weight or volume of food. The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with increased obesity risk and with excessive weight gain. The objectives of this study were to compare how dietary energy density, calculated using three different methods relates to food choices and nutrient composition of the diets of elite figure skaters. Participants were 159 elite figure skaters attending training camps. Mean age was 18.4 y for boys (n = 79) and 15.9 y for girls (n = 80). Heights and weights were measured to calculate body-mass indices (BMI). Dietary intakes were based on 3-d food records analyzed using the Nutritionist IV program. Mean energy intakes were 2326 kcal/d for boys and 1545 kcal/d for girls. Dietary energy density, based on foods and caloric beverages only, was 1.0 kcal/g. Dietary ED was positively associated with percent energy from fat and negatively with percent energy from sugar. The main sources of dietary energy in this group were baked goods, cereals, regular soda, low-fat milk, fruit juices, bagels and pizza. Percent energy from fast foods was associated with higher dietary energy density, whereas percent energy from dairy products, soft drinks, vegetables, and fruit was associated with lower dietary energy density. These results are consistent with past observations; higher energy density diets were higher in fat. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between sugar content and energy density of the diet.

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Timothy D. Heden, Ying Liu, Young-Min Park, Nathan C. Winn and Jill A. Kanaley

Background:

This study assessed if walking at a self-selected pace could improve postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in obese adolescents consuming high-fructose (HF) or high-glucose (HG) diets.

Methods:

Seven obese male and female adolescents (18 ± 1 yr) performed 4, 15-day trials in a random order, including 1) HF-diet (50 g fructose/d added to normal diet) while being sedentary, 2) HG-diet (50 g glucose/d) while sedentary, 3) HF-diet with additional walking, and 4) HG-diet with additional walking. On the 15th day of each trial, the participants performed mixed meal testing in the laboratory in which they consumed three liquid shakes (either HF or HG) and during the HF and HG sedentary trials, the participants took < 4000 steps while in the laboratory but during the walking trials took ≥ 13,000 steps during testing.

Results:

Walking did not alter postprandial glucose concentrations. Although walking reduced insulin secretion by 34% and 25% during the HF- and HG-diet, respectively (P < .05), total insulin concentrations were only significantly reduced (P > .05) with walking during the HF trial, possibly because walking enhanced insulin clearance to a greater extent during the HF-diet.

Conclusions:

Walking reduces postprandial insulin secretion in obese adolescents consuming a high-fructose or high-glucose diet.

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Laureen H. Smith, Devin Laurent, Erica Baumker and Rick L. Petosa

to national rates or clinical recommendations? (2) How do daily PA behaviors compare to the United States daily PA guidelines for adolescents? (3) Are daily PA behaviors related to BMI, BMI%, or body fat percentage? (4) How do sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption behaviors compare to other

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Suzy Weems and Darryn S. Willoughby

macronutrient-based dieting and those who follow traditional, strict dieting regimens. We hypothesized that strict dieting bodybuilders would have better diet quality demonstrated by lower consumption of added sugars and saturated fat and a greater consumption of the micronutrients. Methods Subjects Approval to

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

consumed snacks and sweet foodstuffs (eg, cake, sweets, chocolate, candies, or biscuits; >4 d equated to a high sugar intake), and on a 5-point Likert scale, whether they perceived their diet was characterized by “a little” to “a lot” of salt (diets containing “quite a lot” and “a lot” were considered

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Jennifer M. Sacheck, Helen M. Rasmussen, Meghan M. Hall, Tamar Kafka, Jeffrey B. Blumberg and Christina D. Economos

To investigate the association between pregame snacks varying in macronutrient content and exercise intensity, physiological stress, and fatigue in young soccer players. One hour before a 50-min soccer game, children (n = 79; 9.1 ± 0.8 y) were randomly assigned to consume a raisin-, peanut-butter-, or cereal-based snack. Body mass index, blood glucose, and salivary measures of stress (cortisol and immunoglobulin A-IgA) were measured pre- and post-game. Exercise intensity was measured by accelerometry. Self-administered questionnaires were used to assess diet quality and fatigue. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between pregame snacks and biochemical outcomes. Postgame glucose and cortisol increased [12.9 ± 21.3 mg/dL (p < .001) and 0.04 ± 0.10 μg/dL (p < .05), respectively] and IgA decreased −2.3 ± 9.6 μg/mL; p < .001) from pregame values. The pregame snack was not associated with exercise intensity or post-game outcome; however, children consuming the cereal-based (high-sugar and high-glycemic index (GI)) snack exercised more intensely than the 2 lower-GI snack groups (p < .05). Children who consumed the high-sugar, high-GI snack also reported more symptoms of fatigue (p < .05). A high-sugar, high-GI pregame snack was associated with exercise intensity and fatigue but not changes in blood sugar or stress biomarkers following a soccer game in children.

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Neil P. Walsh, Andrew K. Blannin, Nicolette C. Bishop, Paula J. Robson and Michael Gleeson

Recent studies have shown that neutrophils can utilize glutamine and that glutamine supplementation can improve neutrophil function in postoperative and burn patients. The present study investigated the influence of oral glutamine supplementation on stimulated neutrophil degranulation and oxidative burst activity following prolonged exercise. Subjects, 7 well-trained men, reported to the laboratory following an overnight fast and cycled for 2 hrs at 60% VO2max on two occasions a week apart. They were randomly assigned to either a glutamine or placebo treatment. For both trials, subjects consumed a sugar-free lemon drink at 15-min intervals until 90 minutes, then a lemon flavored glutamine drink (GLN) or sugar-free lemon drink (PLA) was consumed at 15-min intervals for the remaining exercise and the 2-hr recovery period. Venous blood samples were taken pre-, during, and postexercise. Glutamine supplementation had no effect on the magnitude of postexercise leukocytosis, the plasma elastase concentration following exercise (which increased in both trials), or the plasma elastase release in response to bacterial stimulation (which fell in both trials). Neutrophil function assessed by oxidative burst activity of isolated cells did not change following exercise in either trial. These findings therefore suggest that the fall in plasma glutamine concentration does not account for the decrease in neutrophil function (degranulation response) following prolonged exercise.