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Anna Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta, Ewa Deskur-Smielecka, Donata Woitas-Slubowska and Zdzislaw Adach

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

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Maximiliano I. Schaun, Leonardo Lisboa Motta, Rayane Teixeira, Fábio Klamt, Juliane Rossato, Alexandre Machado Lehnen, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen and Melissa M. Markoski

In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), reactive oxygen species may cause irreversible damage to the heart tissue. Physical training is capable of enhancing antioxidant capacity, acting as a cardioprotective factor. We assessed the preventive effects of physical training on the antioxidant and functional responses of the heart of Wistar Kyoto rats after AMI. Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 12) were allocated to sedentary (SED) or trained (EXE—aerobic training on a treadmill) groups. Echocardiographic exams were performed 48 hr before and 48 hr after the induction of AMI. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) were measured in vitro in the heart tissue. After AMI, the EXE group showed higher left ventricular shortening fraction (29%; p = .004), higher cardiac output (37%; p = .032) and reduced myocardial infarction size (16%; p = .007) than SED. The EXE group showed a higher nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (GSH, 23%; p = .004), but the SOD and CAT activities were higher in SED (23% SOD; p = .021 and 20% CAT; p = .016). In addition, the SOD activity was positively correlated with myocardial infarction size and inversely correlated with cardiac output. Physical training partially preserved cardiac function and increased intracellular antioxidant response in cardiac tissue of animals after AMI.

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Kamal Azizbeigi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Maghsoud Peeri, Hamid Agha-alinejad and Stephen Stannard

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance-training (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Twenty male volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: PRT and control. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 wk of PRT and analyzed for enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA, an index of lipid per oxidation in plasma). Resistance training commenced with 8 exercises on nonconsecutive days for 8 wk at 50% of estimated 1-repetition maximum (E1RM) and reached 80% E1RM by Week 8. The results showed that PRT significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity (1,323 ± 212.52 vs. 1,449.9 ± 173.8 U/g Hb, p = .014). Plasma concentration of MDA also decreased (5.39 ± 1.7 vs. 3.67.4 ± 0.7 nmol/ml, p = .030), although TAC (1.42 ± 0.21 vs. 1.61 ± 0.19 mmol/L, p = .1530) and GPx (39.87 ± 11.5 vs. 48.18 ± 14.48 U/g Hb, p = .883) activity did not undergo any considerable changes. Based on these data, the authors conclude that an 8-wk program of PRT strengthens the defensive system of erythrocytes against free-radical damage and therefore can be applied as a useful approach to alleviate oxidative stress.

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Ryan S. Garten, Matthew C. Scott, Tiffany M. Zúñiga, Austin C. Hogwood, R. Carson Fralin and Jennifer Weggen

markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde; Oxis Research, Foster City, CA), antioxidant defense (superoxide dismutase; Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and inflammation (interleukin-6; R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN). Statistical Analysis To determine an adequate sample size, a power analysis was

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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

carotenoids No range a 1.24 5.93 3.30 378 166 a Abbreviations: CDV, critical difference value; FORD, free-radical oxygen defense; FORT, free-radical oxygen test; GSH, glutathione; post, postintervention; RBC, red blood cell; SOD, superoxide dismutase. a Unknown/not published. The following factors may have

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were acquired by SOD Assay Kit-WST (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI). Samples were mixed with WST working solution and enzyme working solution, and then the samples were incubated for 20 minutes at 37°C. The absorbances of the incubated samples were acquired at 450 nm

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Yves Eberhard, Jacqueline Eterradossi and Bettina Debû

The effects of exercise and of a physical conditioning program on 11 subjects (7 males, 4 females, aged 15 to 20) with Down’s syndrome (DS) were analyzed. Metabolic responses were evaluated before and after two ergometric cycle exercise tests: an incremental exercise to symptom limited VO2 max. and an endurance test performed at 60% of maximal aerobic power. Plasma substrates, electrolytes, catecholamines, lipoprotein lipid profiles, and superoxide dismutase were assayed immediately before and after these tests. The results indicated (a) a low blood lactate level for peak exercise, (b) slow free fatty acid mobilization at the start of exercise, (c) a low level of cholesterol HDL and a high level of pre-beta VLDL at rest, (d) adjustment to nearly normal lipid profiles with endurance activity, and (e) differences between before and after training for superoxide dismutase levels in subjects with DS. These results suggest that endurance training could have long-term effects on the pathophysiological consequences of DS.

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Josely C. Koury, Astrogildo V. de Oliveira Jr., Emílson S. Portella, Cyntia F. de Oliveira, Gustavo C. Lopes and Carmen M. Donangelo

The purpose of this study was lo compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocyles; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

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Anna Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta and Ewa Deskur-Smielecka

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. This double-blinded study included 22 members of the Polish Rowing Team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Participants were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 11), who received 100 mg of R. rosea extract twice daily for 4 wk, or the placebo group (n = 11). At the beginning and end of the study, participants performed a 2,000-m maximum test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances concentrations. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and uric acid concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, the total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly higher (p = .0002) in the supplemented group than in the placebo group, and superoxide dismutase activity in erythrocytes directly after and 24 hr after the ergometry was significantly (p = .0461) lower in athletes receiving R. rosea extracts than in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with R. rosea increased antioxidant levels in the plasma of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.

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Vitor Teixeira, Hugo Valente, Susana Casal, Franklim Marques and Pedro Moreira

Strenuous physical activity is known to generate reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed the antioxidant defense system and lead to oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, plasma enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase [Gr], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) activities, nonenzymatic (total antioxidant status [TAS], uric acid, α-tocopherol, retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin) antioxidants, and markers of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and muscle damage (creatine kinase [CK]) were measured in 17 elite male kayakers and canoeists under resting conditions and in an equal number of age- and sex-matched sedentary individuals. Athletes showed increased plasma values of α-tocopherol (p = .037), α-carotene (p = .003), β-carotene (p = .007), and superoxide dismutase activity (p = .002) and a lower TAS level (p = .030). Antioxidant intake (α-tocopherol, vitamin C, and β-carotene) and plasmatic GPx, Gr, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and uric acid levels were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, TBARS (p < .001) and CK (p = .011) levels were found to be significantly higher in the kayakers and canoeists. This work suggests that despite the enhanced levels of antioxidants, athletes undergoing regular strenuous exercise exhibited more oxidative stress than sedentary controls.