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Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Hayley Musson, Rebecca Duncombe and Rachel Sandford

Background:

Previous research has shown a positive relationship between activity-related social support provided by parents and peers and adolescents’ physical activity. However, more information is needed on whether activity-related social support differs by sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in activity-related social support in a sample of adolescents, by characteristics such as age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and physical activity level and to determine which characteristics are the most important predictors of activity-related social support.

Methods:

Information was provided by 578 boys and 588 girls (11–14 years) on demographic factors, physical activity, and activity-related support. ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression were performed to address the purposes of the study.

Results:

Boys, White British, younger, more physically active, and high-SES adolescents perceived more support for physical activity. Age predicted all types of support excluding peer support; ethnicity predicted mother logistic support and sibling support; gender predicted peer support, father explicit modeling, and father logistic support; and SES predicted mother and father logistic support.

Conclusions:

Families and peers of adolescents who are female, from Black and minority ethnic groups, older, of low-SES, and less active should be targeted for intervention.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Chelsea Joyner

Objective:

To examine the association of source of emotional- and financial-related social support and size of social support network on physical activity behavior among older adults.

Methods:

Data from the 1999–2006 NHANES were used (N = 5616; 60 to 85 yrs). Physical activity and emotional- and financial-related social support were assessed via self-report.

Results:

Older adults with perceived having emotional social support had a 41% increased odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.97). The only specific sources of social support that were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines was friend emotional support (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01–1.41) and financial support (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.49). With regard to size of social support network, a dose-response relationship was observed. Compared with those with 0 close friends, those with 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5, and 6+ close friends, respectively, had a 1.70-, 2.38-, 2.57-, and 2.71-fold increased odds of meeting physical activity guidelines. There was some evidence of gender- and age-specific associations between social support and physical activity.

Conclusions:

Emotional- and financial-related social support and size of social support network are associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines among older adults.

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Sheri J. Brock, Jared A. Russell, Brenna Cosgrove and Jessica Richards

applied limited inquiry into identifying promising practices and models for supporting the instructional and professional development of PAWP instructors, particularly graduate teaching assistants (GTAs; Kim, Cardinal, & Yun, 2015 ; Melton & Burdette, 2011 ; Russell, 2009 , 2011 ). A priority for

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Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen and Gretchen Kerr

Within sport, social support has been identified as important for athletes to manage stress ( Gould, Finch, & Jackson, 1993; Rees & Freeman, 2011 ), and researchers have documented how social support is associated with a number of positive outcomes for athletes ( Cranmer & Sollitto, 2015

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Jennifer White, Joanna Scurr and Wendy Hedger

Comparisons of breast support requirements during overground and treadmill running have yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate 3D breast displacement and breast comfort during overground and treadmill running. Six female D cup participants had retro-reflective markers placed on the nipples, anterior superior iliac spines and clavicles. Five ProReflex infrared cameras (100 Hz) measured 3D marker displacement in four breast support conditions. For overground running, participants completed 5 running trials (3.1 m/s ± 0.1 m/s) over a 10 m indoor runway; for treadmill running, speed was steadily increased to 3.1 m/s and 5 gait cycles were analyzed. Subjective feedback on breast discomfort was collected using a visual analog scale. Running modality had no significant effect on breast displacement (p > .05). Moderate correlations (r = .45 to .68, p < .05) were found between breast discomfort and displacement. Stride length (m) and frequency (Hz) did not differ (p < .05) between breast support conditions or running modalities. Findings suggest that breast motion studies that examine treadmill running are applicable to overground running.

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Dominique Banville

Support, or lack thereof, is often cited as the main reason for teachers to leave the profession early on (Ingersoll, 2003). Feiman-Nemser (2001) identifies five Central Tasks associated with Learning to Teach (CTLT) that could focus the support novice teachers need during their induction years: learning the teaching context (TC), designing responsive instructional program (IP), creating a classroom learning community (CC), enacting a beginning repertoire (BR) and developing their professional identity (PI). The purpose of the study is to examine the CTLT that novice physical education teachers use in their first and second years of their teaching career. Twenty-one physical education teachers accepted the study parameters to be observed and interviewed during their first year of teaching, and 15 teachers continued the data collection into their second year. Interviews revealed that these teachers focused mainly on BR and TC. Little focus was given to IP, CC, and PI. Results indicate the need for effective mentoring and continuous support through their induction years on BR and TC, but also expand novice teachers’ focus to address the additional categories.

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Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew

( HealthyPeople 2020, 2014 ). As a result, there has been an extensive history of research into social-psychological processes that might be related to physical activity. One of the more researched areas is social support ( Courneya, Plotnikoff, Hotz, & Birkett, 2000 ; Sallis, Hovell, Hofstetter, & Barrington

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

; Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010 ), feedback will yield a motivating effect if it supports athletes’ basic psychological needs for competence (i.e., feeling effective) and autonomy (i.e., experiencing a sense of volition), as the satisfaction of these needs nurtures intrinsic motivation ( Deci, Koestner

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

inequity of power within their organizations ( Bimper & Harrison, 2015 ). Because of the significant increase in demands created by participating in athletics and the importance of keeping athletes eligible to play, there’s an emphasis placed on effective academic support programs, which is highlighted by

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Nicole M.S. Belanger and Julie Hicks Patrick

the potential for health risks later in the life span. 6 , 7 Therefore, it is important to identify factors that are associated with engaging in physical activity behaviors in college. One such factor is social support; however, the effect of source of support (ie, family and friends) and type of