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Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du

developing meaningful relationships with other fans. Distant fans are not required to belong to such fan groups, but participation in one may influence how fans develop their attachment to the team. As supporter clubs grow in size or scope, the groups become their own communities—their own subcultures of

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Jeffrey W. Kassing and Pratik Nyaupane

limitations. There is little opportunity, then, for them to fully engage their supporter identities at live matches among local supporters. Doing so would involve considerable investment in terms of time, money, and resources—it would require a soccer pilgrimage. Pilgrimage refers to “a journey based on

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Jamie A. Cleland

The development of “new” media and the financial investment in football since the early 1990s have dramatically changed the football club–media relationship. A number of clubs changed ownership and organizational structure for financial gain or financial survival while the increasing demand for immediate information led to clubs’ recognizing the importance of external communication. Drawing on 47 semistructured interviews with media personnel and 827 questionnaires completed by supporters at 4 football clubs, this article assesses the organizational structure of clubs in dealing with the media and supporters and the level of dependence between clubs and the external media. The results highlight changes in the organizational structure of clubs and their strategies for external communication, as well as the contrasting relationships between football clubs and the external media. As ownership and personnel changes occur, clubs should remember the importance of the 2-way relationships they are in with supporters and the media.

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Nancy Theberge

This paper examines the construction of community on a women’s ice hockey team. The analysis is based on fieldwork and interviews with an elite-level team. Within an organizational context in which men play central roles in the management of team affairs and the circle of team supporters, the dressing room provides a space where players come together as hockey players and as women. The analysis suggests that the construction of community on a woman’s hockey team is grounded in members’ shared identity as hockey players and their commitment to the sport. This common focus and interest unite women from diverse backgrounds and social locations.

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Rebecca K. Lytle and Gayle E. Hutchinson

The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and roles adapted physical educators engaged in during consultation interactions. Participants included 4 females and 2 males with experience teaching (range of 3-21 years) in the field of adapted physical education. Data collection included a demographic data sheet, two individual in-depth interviews, interview notes, document analysis, and field observations. Results indicate that participants experienced and made meaning for five distinct roles, including advocate, educator, courier, supporter/helper, and resource coordinator. These findings and future discoveries may influence curriculum and pedagogical approaches for adapted physical education teacher training programs.

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John Hughson and Marcus Free

In sociology of sport, a considerable amount of scholarship concentrates on sport as an arena of social resistance. Fundamental to understanding resistance within practices of sport following and fandom is an underlying knowledge of the nature of sport as a cultural commodity in which fandom and following are invested. This article draws on Paul Willis’s theoretical work as a means of examining contemporary cultural commodities and the commodity nature of sport in particular. The theoretical discussion is illustrated by an empirical study of developments within English soccer involving collective supporters’ resistance to heightened corporate intrusion into the control of professional clubs.

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Radoslaw Kossakowski

The main aim of this article is to present the history of Polish football fandom as a social process which has coincided with the processes of transformation of Polish society over the last few decades. The fan movement in Poland dates back to the early 1970s when the communist authorities attempted to channel the activity of supporters. The 1980s, however, brought the development of a spontaneous movement with strong accents of hooliganism. The post-1989 transformation led to an economic and social crisis, with the rule of anarchy in football stadiums. Along with the formation of the democratic order, the fan movement evolved into different sections focused on particular aspects of activity. The paper is also devoted to the ideological dimension of fan culture, related to the conflict with the government at the turn of the 2010s.

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Scott Kretchmar

Douglas Anderson's article about the demise of play in American culture challenges us at both personal and professional levels. It raises the possibility that play is on the wane for us personally, our own children, and our students. It suggests that we have turned our professional backs on play and allowed our play curricula to languish or disappear altogether. In this reaction paper, I affirm Anderson's thesis about the current status of play. I discuss play metaphorically as a dance between the player (the dancer) and the playground (the dancer's partner). I describe this as a fragile relationship, one that needs to be cultivated if it is to endure. I suggest that we kinesiologists have not been good supporters of the dance because of tacit or explicit commitments we have made about knowledge, value, and culture. I claim that unless and until we resolve these issues, we will continue to push physical play off the pedagogical stages at our colleges and universities.

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Stacy-Lynn Sant and Daniel S. Mason

In preparation for Olympic bids, city officials and event managers often cite event “legacies” and argue that such benefits may be realized for decades. Meanwhile, public support is extremely important when moving forward with a bid; legacy has therefore become a prominent feature in bid committee rhetoric and in the management of event bidding, and how the notion of legacy is managed in the media by bid proponents will be key to a successful bid. This paper explores how legacy was framed in the newspaper media during the Olympic bid in Vancouver, where city officials, local politicians, and members of the bid committee focused their pro-bid arguments around infrastructure, economic, and social legacies. Results show how these legacies entered the bid discourse at various points in the domestic and international bid competitions, as supporters moved away from discussions of new infrastructure development and economic impacts toward intangible event benefits.

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Daniel F. Mahony, Harold A. Riemer, James L. Breeding and Mary A. Hums

Prior research has found that coaches and administrators at NCAA institutions believed distributing resources equally or based on program needs was fairer than distributing them based on program contributions. The current studies build on these findings by examining the views of fairness among college athletes and other college students in a hypothetical intercollegiate athletics setting (N = 150) and a hypothetical sport business setting (N = 150). In both settings, equality of treatment and need are most likely to be chosen as the fairest allocation methods. Although there are no group differences in the sport business setting, chi-square analysis and analysis of fairness ratings indicate some group differences in the intercollegiate athletics setting. Women are stronger supporters of equal distributions and equal reductions, whereas men are more supportive of making decisions based on need and contribution of the program.