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Kate M. Sansum, Max E. Weston, Bert Bond, Emma J. Cockcroft, Amy O’Connor, Owen W. Tomlinson, Craig A. Williams, and Alan R. Barker

supramaximal test to verify that the V ˙ O 2 peak that had been achieved in the incremental test is a “true” V ˙ O 2 max . This requires participants to exercise at a power output greater than the maximal power output achieved during the incremental test ( 2 , 32 ), and is a variation of the original

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Michael Doherty

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and short-term running performance. Nine well-trained males performed a preliminary assessment and. at least 4 days later, a supramaximal run to exhaustion. Their VO2max values were determined, and the MAOD test at an exercise intensity equivalent to 125% VO2max was performed. Caffeine (5 mg ⋅ kg−1) or placebo was administered 1 hr prior to the MAOD in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study. In comparison to the placebo condition, subjects in the caffeine condition developed a significantly greater MAOD and increased their run lime to exhaustion. However, posl-MAOD blood lactate concentration ([HLa]) was not different between trials for caffeine and placebo. Caffeine ingestion can be an effective ergogenic aid for short-term, supramaximal running performance and can increase MAOD. However, these results do not appear to be related to an increased [HLa).

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Neil Chapman, John William Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan, and Rudi Meir

to be subpar. 19 Athletes and coaches may limit athlete engagement in eccentrically biased programs, particularly of supramaximal intensity, limiting athlete involvement in subsequent training sessions due to delayed onset muscle soreness. 19 Athletes and coaches may favor other contraction modes

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Antti Mero and Paavo V. Komi

The effects of running at supramaximal velocity on biomechanical variables were studied in 13 male and 9 female sprinters. Cinematographical analysis was employed to investigate the biomechanics of the running technique. In supramaximal running the velocity increased by 8.5%, stride rate by 1.7%, and stride length by 6.8% over that of the normal maximal running. The elite male sprinters increased their stride rate significantly but did not increase their stride length. The major biomechanical differences between supramaximal and maximal running occurred during the contact phase. In supramaximal running the inclination of the ground shank at the beginning of eccentric phase was more "braking" and the angle of the ground knee was greater. During the ground contact phase, the maximal horizontal velocity of the swinging thigh was faster. The duration of the contact phase was shorter and the flight phase was longer in the supramaximal run as compared to the maximal run. It was concluded that in supramaximal effort it is possible to run at a higher stride rate than in maximal running. Data suggest that supramaximal sprinting can be beneficial in preparing for competition and as an additional stimulus for the neuromuscular system during training. This may result in adaptation of the neuromuscular system to a higher performance level.

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Al Haddad Hani, Paul B. Laursen, Ahmaidi Said, and Buchheit Martin

Purpose:

To assess the effect of supramaximal intermittent exercise on long-term cardiac autonomic activity, inferred from heart rate variability (HRV).

Methods:

Eleven healthy males performed a series of two consecutive intermittent 15-s runs at 95% VIFT (i.e., speed reached at the end of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) interspersed with 15 s of active recovery at 45% VIFT until exhaustion. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded during two consecutive nights (habituation night and 1st night) before, 10 min before and immediately after exercise, as well as 12 h (2nd night) and 36 h (3rd night) after supramaximal intermittent exercise. The HRV indices were calculated from the last 5 min of resting and recovery periods, and the first 10 min of the first estimated slow wave sleep period.

Results:

Immediate post-supramaximal exercise vagal-related HRV indices were significantly lower than immediate pre-supramaximal exercise values (P < .001). Most vagal-related indices were lower during the 2nd night compared with the 1st night (eg, mean RR intervals, P = .03). Compared with the 2nd night, vagal-related HRV indices were significantly higher during the 3rd night. Variables were not different between the 1st and 3rd nights; however, we noted a tendency (adjusted effect size, aES) for an increased normalized high-frequency component (P = .06 and aES = 0.70) and a tendency toward a decreased low-frequency component (P = .06 and aES = 0.74).

Conclusion:

Results confirm the strong influence of exercise intensity on short- and long-term post exercise heart rate variability recovery and might help explain the high efficiency of supramaximal training for enhancing indices of cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Arnold G. Nelson

It has been shown that the rate of tension generation (dP/dt) continues to increase with increasing stimulation rates, even after maximal tetanic tension has been achieved. Since dP/dt is directly proportional to unloaded shortening velocity, it was questioned whether supramaximal stimulation rates would increase shortening velocity. To test the relationship of velocity and stimulation rate, slack tests were performed on motor units isolated in the rat soleus muscles. For each motor unit tested, two slack tests were performed at two different stimulation rates: one rate yielded a maximal tetanic tension with a "slow" dP/dt (PO) and the other rate yielded a maximal tetanic tension with a "fast" dP/dt (RG). The two stimulation rates (PO and RG) had significantly different effects (p < .05) on motor unit shortening velocity, with the RG rate yielding a shortening velocity greater than that of PO by an average of 13 ± 6%. This suggests that rate coding could be used to grade motor unit power production by grading force production and/or shortening velocity.

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Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Charles Pedlar, Richard J. Godfrey, and Mark Glaister

Purpose:

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supramaximal exercise intensity during constant work-rate cycling to exhaustion on the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) and to determine the test–retest reliability of AOD.

Methods:

Twenty-one trained male cyclists and triathletes (mean ± SD for age and maximal oxygen uptake [V̇O2max] were 41 ± 7 y and 4.53 ± 0.54 L/min, respectively) performed initial tests to determine the linear relationship between V̇O2 and power output, and V̇O2max. In subsequent trials, AOD was determined from exhaustive square-wave cycling trials at 105%, 112.5% (in duplicate), 120%, and 127.5% V̇O2max.

Results:

Exercise intensity had an effect (P = .011) on the AOD (3.84 ± 1.11, 4.23 ± 0.96, 4.09 ± 0.87, and 3.93 ± 0.89 L at 105%, 112.5%, 120%, and 127.5% V̇O2max, respectively). Specifically, AOD at 112.5% V̇O2max was greater than at 105% V̇O2max (P = .033) and at 127.5% V̇O2max (P = .022), but there were no differences between the AOD at 112.5% and 120% V̇O2max. In 76% of the participants, the maximal AOD occurred at 112.5% or 120% V̇O2max. The reliability statistics of the AOD at 112.5% V̇O2max, determined as intraclass correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation, were .927 and 8.72%, respectively.

Conclusions:

The AOD, determined from square-wave cycling bouts to exhaustion, peaks at intensities of 112.5–120% V̇O2max. Moreover, the AOD at 112.5% V̇O2max exhibits an 8.72% test–retest reliability.

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Paula Marta Bruno, Fernando Duarte Pereira, Renato Fernandes, and Gonçalo Vilhena de Mendonça

The responses to supramaximal exercise testing have been traditionally analyzed by means of standard parametric and nonparametric statistics. Unfortunately, these statistical approaches do not allow insight into the pattern of variation of a given parameter over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if the application of dynamic factor analysis (DFA) allowed discriminating different patterns of power output (PO), during supramaximal exercise, in two groups of children engaged in competitive sports: swimmers and soccer players. Data derived from Wingate testing were used in this study. Analyses were performed on epochs (30 s) of upper and lower body PO obtained from twenty two healthy boys (11 swimmers and 11 soccer players) age 11–12 years old. DFA revealed two distinct patterns of PO during Wingate. Swimmers tended to attain their peak PO (upper and lower body) earlier than soccer players. As importantly, DFA showed that children with a given pattern of upper body PO tend to perform similarly during lower body exercise.

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Napasakorn Chuensiri, Hirofumi Tanaka, and Daroonwan Suksom

Purpose:

To determine the acute effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) on vascular function.

Methods:

Lean (n = 18, BMI = 17.1 ± 0.7) and obese (n = 17, BMI = 25.4 ± 0.8) prepubescent boys aged 10.2 ± 0.2 years were studied. HIIE consisted of 8 sets of 20 s of cycle ergometry at 100, 130, and 170% of VO2peak alternating with 10 s of rests.

Results:

The obese group had higher (p < .05) body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, waist-hip ratio than the lean group. Carotid artery wall thickness and arterial stiffness as assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were greater in the obese than in the lean group (p < .05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was not different between the groups. Total energy expenditure increased gradually as the exercise intensity increased in both groups (p < .05). The obese group had significantly greater total energy expenditure in all three HIIE intensities than the lean group. FMD tended to be higher and baPWV lower as the exercise intensity increased in both groups. Only the HIIE at 170% demonstrated greater FMD compared with the baseline in both groups. baPWV decreased significantly after HIIE at 130 and 170% VO2peak in both groups.

Conclusion:

Supramaximal HIIE can be a feasible exercise modality for improving vascular function in obese prepubescent boys. Future exercise intervention studies are warranted.

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Rodrigo De Araujo Bonetti De Poli, Willian Eiji Miyagi, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, and Alessandro Moura Zagatto

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of acute caffeine supplementation on anaerobic capacity determined by the alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT) in running effort. Eighteen recreational male runners [29 ± 7years; total body mass 72.1 ± 5.8 kg; height 176.0 ± 5.4cm; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) 55.8 ± 4.2 ml·kg-1 ·min-1] underwent a graded exercise test. Caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or a placebo were administered 1 hr before the supramaximal effort at 115% of the intensity associated with VO2max in a double-blind, randomized cross-over study, for MAODALT assessment. The time to exhaustion under caffeine condition (130.2 ± 24.5s) was 11.3% higher (p = .01) than placebo condition (118.8 ± 24.9 s) and the qualitative inference for substantial changes showed a very likely positive effect (93%). The net participation of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway was significantly higher in the caffeine condition (p = .02) and showed a likely positive effect (90%) of 15.3% with caffeine supplementation. The time constant of abrupt decay of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (τ1) was significantly different between caffeine and placebo conditions (p = .03) and showed a likely negative effect (90%), decreasing -8.0% with caffeine supplementation. The oxygen equivalents estimated from the glycolytic and phosphagen metabolic pathways showed a possibly positive effect (68%) and possibly negative effect (78%) in the qualitative inference with caffeine ingestion, respectively. However, the MAODALT did not differ under the caffeine or placebo conditions (p = .68). Therefore, we can conclude that acute caffeine ingestion does not modify the MAODALT, reinforcing the robustness of this method. However, caffeine ingestion can alter the glycolytic and phosphagen metabolic pathway contributions to MAODALT.