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Lucas J. Carr, Shira Dunsinger and Bess H. Marcus

Background:

Long-term physical activity surveillance has not been conducted among Latinas. This study explored the variability of daily physical activity habits of inactive adult Latinas participating in a 12-month physical activity intervention.

Methods:

We collected objective physical activity data (pedometer) from 139 Spanish speaking Latinas (age = 41.6 ± 10.1 years; BMI = 29.6 ± 4.3 kg/m2) enrolled in a 12-month physical activity intervention. Total and aerobic steps (>100 steps/minute) were computed by year, season, month, day of week, time of day, and hour.

Results:

Participants walked an average of 6509 steps/day of which 1303 (20%) were aerobic steps. Significant physical activity differences were observed for subgroups including generational status, education, employment, income, marital status and health literacy. Significant and similar differences were observed for both total steps and aerobic steps for day of the week (weekdays > weekends) and season (summer > spring > fall > winter). Opposing trends were observed over the course of the day for total steps (early afternoon > late morning > late afternoon > early morning > evening) and aerobic steps (early morning > evening > late morning > late afternoon > early afternoon).

Conclusions:

Both seasonality and week day predicted physical activity habits of Latinas. This is the first long-term study to track daily physical activity habits of Latinas. These data have potential to inform the design of future physical activity interventions targeting Latinas.

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Sarah J. Hatteberg

in explaining the structural organization of sport, pointing to the social isolation, surveillance, and control to which collegiate athletes, particularly profit-athletes , are subjected (e.g., Adler & Adler, 1991 ; Anderson, 2009 ; Atkinson & Young, 2008 ; Birrell & Donnelly, 2004 ; Rainey

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Derek G. Shendell, Tracy A. Listwan, Lauren Gonzalez and Joseph Panchella

Key Points ▸ The study analyzed adolescent student-athlete concussion data through state public-school-based online surveillance in 2015–2017. ▸ Adolescents may be at greater risk for adverse effects from concussions. ▸ Data obtained improved concussion characterization. ▸ Future efforts should

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Aston K. McCullough and Carol Ewing Garber

children to wear at least one activity monitor for ≥18 hours ( Cliff, Reilly, & Okely, 2009 ; Van Cauwenberghe, Gubbels, De Bourdeaudhuij, & Cardon, 2011 ), which may restrict wider implementation of wearable sensor-based methods for early childhood PA surveillance especially when there are a limited

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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

Injury risk exists in all physical activities. In sport, 1 fitness, 2 and dance, 3 it is acknowledged that thorough risk assessment and injury surveillance are necessary to guide injury reduction and, thus, health promotion strategies. In a sporting context, these strategies involve

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Bryan Sluggett

While a considerable amount of work has centered on the doping problem within sport scholarship, little extended attention has been given to drug testing as a surveillance system in itself. The paper draws from Haggerty and Ericson’s (2000) surveillant assemblage model to highlight the increasing convergence of once discrete surveillance systems now evident in the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) recent policy changes. It outlines the unique contribution that Deleuzian assemblage theory offers doping and sport scholarship. Assemblage theory opens up a line of research to study how surveillance is produced through the continuous monitoring of information across multiple interacting control systems. The article draws from WADA policy documents to suggest that the changing dynamics of transparency within sport increasingly place all athletes under more intense and nuanced scrutiny for any signs of suspicious activity.

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Andrea Ramirez Varela, Michael Pratt, Kenneth Powell, I-Min Lee, Adrian Bauman, Gregory Heath, Rafaela Costa Martins, Harold Kohl and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide.

Methods:

Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information’s accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories.

Results:

Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance.

Conclusions:

Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

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Alan G. Knuth and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

In spite of all accumulated scientific knowledge on the benefits of physical activity (PA) for health, high rates of sedentary lifestyle are still observed worldwide. The aim of this study was to systematically review articles on temporal trends of PA and fitness, with emphasis on differences between children/adolescents and adults.

Methods:

An electronic search at the Medline/PubMed database was carried out using the following combination of keywords: temporal trends or trends or surveillance or monitoring and PA or exercise or physical fitness or motor activity or sedentary or fitness.

Results:

By using this strategy, 23,088 manuscripts were detected. After examination, 41 articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria, and were, therefore, included. The data currently available in the literature for adults shows that leisure-time activity levels tend to be increasing over time, while occupational-related PA is decreasing over time. Youth PA seems to be decreasing over time, including a lower level of activity in physical education classes. As a consequence, fitness levels are also declining.

Conclusion:

PA surveillance must be strongly encouraged in all settings and age groups. Special attention must be paid to low and middle-income countries, where PA surveillance is virtually inexistent.

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Philip W. Scruggs

Background:

The aim of this study was to advance physical activity (PA) surveillance in physical education (PE) by establishing a steps/min guideline that would accurately classify fifth and sixth graders as engaging in PA for 10 min or one-third of the PE lesson time.

Methods:

Data were collected on 147 (11.48 ± 0.83 y) girls and boys in 14 intact classes from five schools. PA was assessed via behavioral observation (i.e., criterion) and pedometry (i.e., predictor). Logistic and linear regression techniques were employed to generate pedometer steps/min cut points. Classification of outcome probability (c), sensitivity, specificity, and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve statistics tested the decision accuracy of generated steps/min cut points.

Results:

PA measures were strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.80, P < 0.01). A steps/min interval of 60 to 62 was the best cut point indicator of students meeting the PA guidelines.

Conclusions:

Findings support steps/min as an accurate quantifier of PA time in structured PA programs. PA surveillance via pedometry in PE using empirically derived criteria is an objective, valid, and practical mechanism for assessing a primary PE and public health outcome.

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Prabasaj Paul, Susan A. Carlson, Dianna D. Carroll, David Berrigan and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Walking, the most commonly reported physical activity among U.S. adults, is undertaken in various domains, including transportation and leisure.

Methods:

This study examined prevalence, bout length, and mean amount of walking in the last week for transportation and leisure, by selected characteristics. Self-reported data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (N = 24,017) were analyzed.

Results:

Prevalence of transportation walking was 29.4% (95% CI: 28.6%–30.3%) and of leisure walking was 50.0% (95% CI: 49.1%–51.0%). Prevalence of transportation walking was higher among men; prevalence of leisure walking was higher among women. Most (52.4%) transportation walking bouts were 10 to 15 minutes; leisure walking bouts were distributed more evenly (28.0%, 10–15 minutes; 17.1%, 41–60 minutes). Mean time spent in transportation walking was higher among men, decreased with increasing BMI, and varied by race/ethnicity and region of residence. Mean time spent leisure walking increased with increasing age and with decreasing BMI.

Conclusion:

Demographic correlates and patterns of walking differ by domain. Interventions focusing on either leisure or transportation walking should consider correlates for the specific walking domain. Assessing prevalence, bout length, and mean time of walking for transportation and leisure separately allows for more comprehensive surveillance of walking.