The purpose of this study was to compare participant responses to a questionnaire delivered via the Internet with data collected using a traditional paper and pencil format distributed via postal mail. Athletes (N = 214, mean age 26.53 years) representing 18 sports from the New Zealand Academy of Sport were randomly assigned into two groups and completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ; Raedeke & Smith, 2001). There was a noticeable trend (p = .07, two-tailed) toward a better response rate in the online group (57.07%) compared with the postal group (46.63%). Furthermore, online questionnaires were returned faster and contained fewer missing responses. A series of nested, multigroup confirmatory factor analyses indicated that there were no significant group differences in the factor structure or latent mean structures of the ABQ.
Chris Lonsdale, Ken Hodge and Elaine A. Rose
Derwin K.C. Chan, Andreas Ivarsson, Andreas Stenling, Sophie X. Yang, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Martin S. Hagger
Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.
Natalie A. Brown, Michael B. Devlin and Andrew C. Billings
This study explores the implications of the sports communication theory of fan identification and the divisions often developed between identifying with a single athlete and the bonds developed for a sport as a whole. Using the fastest growing North American sport, mixed martial arts (MMA)—more specifically, the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC)—differences in levels of fan identification were examined in relationship to attitudes toward individual athletes and attitudes toward the UFC organization. An online survey of 911 respondents produced a highly representative sample of the UFC’s current audience demographics. Results showed significant differences in fan identify between gender, age, and sensationseeking behaviors, suggesting that distinct demographic variables may influence the role that fan identity has not only in sports media consumption but also in future event consumption. Implications and ramifications for future theoretical sports communication research and sports marketing are postulated.
Lilian Roos, Wolfgang Taube, Carolin Tuch, Klaus Michael Frei and Thomas Wyss
effect on the accuracy of the sRPE values. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of (1) the survey methods and (2) the time points when RPE was assessed on the correlation between subjective (sRPE) and objective assessment (HR) of TL. Methods Subjects Overall, 85 athletes (58 men
Wendy J. Brown and Yvette D. Miller
National physical activity data suggest that there is a considerable difference in physical activity levels of US and Australian adults. Although different surveys (Active Australia and BRFSS) are used, the questions are similar. Different protocols, however, are used to estimate “activity” from the data collected. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether the 2 approaches to the management of PA data could explain some of the difference in prevalence estimates derived from the two national surveys.
Secondary data analysis of the most recent AA survey (N = 2987).
15% of the sample was defined as “active” using Australian criteria but as “inactive” using the BRFSS protocol, even though weekly energy expenditure was commensurate with meeting current guidelines. Younger respondents (age < 45 y) were more likely to be “misclassified” using the BRFSS criteria.
The prevalence of activity in Australia and the US appears to be more similar than we had previously thought.
Stephen R. McDaniel
This study uses a two-stage telephone survey method, involving a stratified random sample (n = 248) of American adults (18+), to examine the implications of audience demographics, personal values, lifestyle, and interests to sport marketing and media, in the context of the 1996 Summer Olympic Games. Three hypotheses were tested using stepwise multiple regression and independent group t-test analyses and all received at least partial support. Male respondents' levels of interest in the Olympic Games were significantly related to their patriotic values and lifestyle. Those most interested in this event reported significantly higher levels of patriotism and religiosity than those less interested; likewise, the high event interest group reported enjoying advertising at a significantly greater level than their low event interest counterparts. Demographics, lifestyle, and event interest levels significantly influenced total amount of exposure to the event telecast.
Sharon R. Guthrie, Cathy Ferguson and Dixie Grimmett
This research examined the nutritional practices and body images of 13 competitive women bodybuilders living in southern California and in the Midwest. Data collection included both structured interviews and survey methods. Findings indicate nutritional health and positive body image among this sample of women. None of the bodybuilders had anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R; American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria, were binge eaters or used pathogenic weight control measures. Instead, they reported significant improvement in their nutritional attitudes and behaviors after beginning bodybuilding training. These data suggest a relationship between participating in competitive bodybuilding and other behaviors related to nutrition and self-perception.
Timothy Jon Curry
Photo-elicitation is a technique of interviewing in which photographs are used to stimulate and guide a discussion between the interviewer and the respondent. While much of the previous research done with the method has been conducted by anthropologists in foreign cultures, the technique is also well suited for the study of sports in America. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this method in comparison to standard interviewing, participant observation, and survey methods of studying sports. An illustrative portion is presented of a photo-elicitation interview conducted with an elite college wrestler about the violence, pain, and injury inherent in his sport, and the article concludes with a brief description of other sociology of sport topics currently being researched with the photo-elicitation interview.
Trevor Williams and Denise Taylor
This study examines the influence of peers as sport socialization agents in the context of a wheelchair racing subculture in the United Kingdom. Using participant observation and survey methods the study focuses on elite and nonelite peer relationships–those between nonelite racers, between elite racers, and between elite and nonelite racers–and the knowledge that is transmitted and exchanged as subcultural responses to wheelchair racing problems. Six main interactional socialization contexts are identified: buying a racing wheelchair, British Wheelchair Racing Association training sessions, local training sessions, domestic races, foreign races, and Great Britain national squad training. Within these contexts elite racers socialize their nonelite peers by passing on subcultural solutions to two sets of problems: those that concern the racing chair and those that concern training. The relationship between the individual and the collective is complex, but peers play a major role in the development and transmission of the wheelchair racing subculture.
Gavin Turrell, Michele Haynes, Martin O’Flaherty, Nicola Burton, Katrina Giskes, Billie Giles-Corti and Lee-Ann Wilson
Further development of high quality measures of neighborhood perceptions will require extensions and refinements to our existing approaches to reliability assessment. This study examined the test-retest reliability of perceptions of the neighborhood environment by socioeconomic status (SES).
Test and retest surveys were conducted using a mail survey method with persons aged 40 to 65 years (n = 222, 78.2% response rate). SES was measured using the respondent’s education level and the socioeconomic characteristics of their neighborhood of residence. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlations (ICC) estimated with random coefficient models.
Overall, the 27 items had moderate-to-substantial reliability (ICC = 0.41−0.74). Few statistically significant differences were found in ICC between the education groups or neighborhoods, although the ICCs were significantly larger among the low SES for items that measured perceptions of neighborhood greenery, interesting things to see, litter, traffic volume and speed, crime, and rowdy youth on the streets.
For the majority of the items, poor reliability and subsequent exposure misclassification is no more or less likely among low educated respondents and residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods. Estimates of the association between neighborhood perceptions and physical activity therefore are likely to be similarly precise irrespective of the respondent’s socioeconomic background.