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Chad Seifried

The measurement of decisions requiring a comparison between alternatives could be improved for researchers because limitations exist with the more traditional survey techniques. To address this concern, the purpose of this review centered on discussing the merits of the forced-choice certainty method against those offered by single-stimulus Likert scale and forced-choice survey instruments. Few reviews have used the forced-choice certainty method to test topics which involve comparison and to gather accurate information on consumers, commercial products and services, and other important issues of public debate. This has occurred due to some negative literature on forced-choice surveys and preferences shown for the various reliability and validity statistics that can be easily produced with single-stimulus Likert-scale instruments. Ultimately, this work attempts to help researchers better understand the contribution that the forced-choice certainty method can make and showcase it as a product resulting from the merger of both forced-choice and Likert-scale instruments.

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Miranda P. Kaye and Sharleen Hoar

The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.

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Armand A. Buzzelli and Jason A. Draper

perceived benefits of recreational sports for participants. Items are scored on a 4-point scale from “ no benefit ” to “ great benefit .” The survey instruments were e-mailed to the 18,018 members of the USAPA on May 17, 2017. Members were also engaged via social media, and the link to the survey was able

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Kirk L. Wakefield, Jeffrey G. Blodgett, and Hugh J. Sloan

The physical environment of the stadium may have a significant effect on the extent to which spectators will desire to stay and return to the stadium. Specific aspects of the stadium experience may lead directly to spectators' pleasure with the place, while other factors may contribute to negative feelings that may decrease pleasure. This study provides sports facility managers with a reliable survey instrument to determine how spectators perceive their facility. Recommendations are provided to guide stadium owners and managers in the effective management of the facility to maximize spectator satisfaction.

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James May, Ryan Krzyzanowicz, Alan Nasypany, Russell Baker, and Jeffrey Seegmiller

Context:

Although randomized controlled trials indicate that the Mulligan Concept (MC) of mobilization with movement can improve pain-free grip strength and pressure pain threshold in patients with lateral epicondylalgia of the elbow, improve ankle dorsiflexion in patients with subacute ankle sprains, and decrease the signs and symptoms of patients with cervicogenic headache, little is known about the clinical application, use, and profile of certified Mulligan practitioners (CMPs) in America.

Objective:

To better understand the use and value of applying the MC philosophy in clinical-care environments from the perspective of American CMPs while establishing a clinical profile of a CMP.

Design:

Quantitative descriptive design. Setting: Online survey instrument.

Participants:

American CMPs.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Online survey instrument.

Results:

CMPs use the MC to treat a broad spectrum of spinal and peripheral clinical pathologies in primarily outpatient clinics with an active and athletic population. American CMPs also find value in the MC.

Conclusions:

American CMPs continue to use and find value in the MC intervention strategy to treat a broad spectrum of spinal and peripheral conditions in their clinical practices.

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David A. Pierce and Jeffrey C. Petersen

Experiential learning within sport sales is a growing component of the sport management curriculum. Assessment of student learning outcomes within these experiences is important in quantifying the effectiveness of the learning experience. This study utilized a survey to examine the change in students’ perceptions of sport sales as a result of completing an experiential, client-based sport sales program. The methodology included development and analysis of a survey instrument and application of that survey with enrolled and non-enrolled groups with pre- and post-test experiential learning assessment. Student expectations of a career in sport sales significantly decreased after program completion (t(56) = 2.33, p < .05), while their perception of skill level and preparation for a sport sales employment did not significantly change for the experimental group. These findings relate this learning experience to a realistic job preview for the students, which typically decrease an individual’s expectations toward a particular job (Premack & Wanous, 1985).

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Elizabeth B. Delia and Cole G. Armstrong

Scholars have frequently examined sponsorship effectiveness via survey instrument; however, no efforts have been made to gauge sponsorship effectiveness via social networking sites. As a medium for consumer activity and interaction, scholars and industry professionals can leverage social media to monitor the effects of sponsorship in real time, as consumers experience a sporting event. In this exploratory study, we employed a mixed methods study design to examine Twitter users’ discussion of 2013 French Open sponsors during the tennis tournament. We found a weak positive relationship between sponsor-event functional fit and positive sponsor-related sentiment, and a weak positive relationship between a sponsor company’s social media presence and event-related buzz. Through case study analysis, we discovered unintended misrepresentation and activation were apparent drivers of sponsor-related social media conversation during the 2013 French Open. As an emerging area for sponsorship research, we provide suggestions for future research into sponsorship and social media.

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Eldon E. Snyder and Dean A. Purdy

Much of the research on athletic officials has focused on their psychological traits. Researchers have considered the officials’ social world, as well as the emergent and processual nature of their activities in game situations. The present research provides an analysis of data on referees as they enforce rules and norms within the fluid context of basketball games. Quantitative data were collected from a survey of 689 high school basketball officials; additionally, qualitative data were gathered from the open-ended portions of the survey instrument as well as from participant observation and discussions with other officials. The primary conceptual areas generated from the research included control of the game, supplementation of rules, and the communication of decisions by officials. The findings are related to other areas of social control in which the rule violator must be closely supervised by the rule enforcer.

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M. Elizabeth Verner, Jeffrey B. Hecht, and A. Gigi Fansler

This paper describes the development of a survey instrument to assess athletics donor motivation. An extensive literature review, followed by interviews with athletics donors, identified 14 dimensions of donor motivation. Expert review and field testing of potential survey items reduced the number of dimensions of athletics donor motivation to 12. The final instrument, Motivation of Athletics Donors (MAD-1), was pilot tested with a sample of donors from 10 NCAA Division I athletics programs. Eleven scales were validated using confirmatory factor analysis, scale reliabilities (Cronbach's alpha), and item-to-total correlations. These results (a) provide the foundation necessary for systematic study of athletics donor behavior utilizing social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework, and (b) support the use of the MAD-1 as a practical instrument for assessing the specific motivations of any particular donor group.

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Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to develop a model to guide assessment for physical education planning for integration and inclusion at the school district level. A secondary goal was to determine if teachers’ gender, age, education, and experience of teaching children with special needs are associated with beliefs about barriers to integration. To test the model, data were collected from physical education specialists and classroom teachers in central Finland. The survey instruments were three scales: (a) Awareness of Individual Differences Survey, (b) Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs–Finnish modification (SAPEN-F), and (c) Teacher Beliefs About Physical Education Integration Scale. Results indicated that Finnish teachers know they have students with special needs. PE specialists and classroom teachers share many common beliefs about priority needs. Teachers believe that the most important barrier that hinders physical education integration is attitude. The model described herein worked in Finland and is ready for further testing by other countries.