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Joy B. Reeves

A survey of male players of the National Survival Game reveals that most participants are young, white, single, well educated, and consider themselves to be active sportsmen. A factor analysis suggests that there are three distinct reasons for participation: (a) general physical, intellectual, and social benefits, (b) aggression, and (c) achievement and control. Surprisingly, those players in the sample who had traditional sex-role attitudes participated less frequently than those with less traditional views.

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I-Min Lee, Kathleen Y. Wolin, Sarah E. Freeman, Jacob Sattlemair and Howard D. Sesso

Background:

The number of cancer survivors is increasing rapidly; however, little is known about whether engaging in physical activity after a cancer diagnosis is associated with lower mortality rates in men.

Methods:

We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1021 men (mean age, 71.3 years) who were diagnosed with cancer (other than nonmelanoma skin cancer). Men reported their physical activities (walking, stair climbing, and participation in sports and recreational activities) on questionnaires in 1988, a median of 6 years after their cancer diagnosis. Physical activity was updated in 1993 and men were followed until 2008, with mortality follow-up > 99% complete, during which 777 men died (337 from cancer, 190 from cardiovascular disease).

Results:

In multivariate analyses, the relative risks for all-cause mortality associated with expending < 2100, 2100–4199, 4200–8399, 8400–12,599, and ≥ 12,600 kJ/week in physical activity were 1.00 (referent), 0.77, 0.74, 0.76, and 0.52, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Higher levels of physical activity also were associated with lower rates of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease (P-trend = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively).

Conclusions:

Engaging in physical activity after cancer diagnosis is associated with better survival among men.

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Paul D. Loprinzi and Elizabeth Crush

Objective:

No study has comprehensively examined the independent and combined effects of sensory impairment, physical activity and balance on mortality risk, which was this study’s purpose.

Methods:

Data from the population-based 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used, with follow-up through 2011. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Balance was assessed via the Romberg test. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed objectively using a standard monofilament. Visual impairment was objectively assessed using an autorefractor. Hearing impairment was assessed via self-report. A 5-level index variable (higher score is worse) was calculated based on the participant’s degree of sensory impairment, dysfunctional balance and physical inactivity.

Results:

Among the 1658 participants (age 40–85 yrs), 228 died during the median follow-up period of 92 months. Hearing (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.18; P = .40), vision (HR = 1.17; P = .58) and peripheral neuropathy (HR = 1.06; P = .71) were not independently associated with all-cause mortality, but physical activity (HR = 0.97; P = .01) and functional balance (HR = 0.59; P = .03) were. Compared with those with an index score of 0, the HR (95% CI) for those with an index score of 1 to 3, respectively, were 1.20 (0.46–3.13), 2.63 (1.08–6.40) and 2.88 (1.36–6.06).

Conclusions:

Physical activity and functional balance are independent contributors to survival.

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Meghan K. Edwards and Paul D. Loprinzi

Objective: Muscular strength has been shown to inversely associate with mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular strength and residual-specific mortality among a national sample of US adults, which has yet to be investigated. Here, residual-specific mortality is identified as deaths not inclusive of the 9 leading causes of death as identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. Methods: Data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used (N = 2171 adults, aged 50–85 y). Participants were followed through 2011, including a median follow-up of 125 months. Lower extremity muscular strength was assessed using maximal isokinetic contractions. Results: After adjusting for all covariates (age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, C-reactive protein, mean arterial pressure, self-report of meeting aerobic-based physical activity guidelines, and physician diagnoses of diabetes), the Cox proportional hazard model demonstrated that for every 25 N increase in lower extremity muscular strength, individuals had a 14% reduced risk of residual-specific death (hazard ratio = 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.78–0.96; P = .008). Conclusion: Lower body muscular strength is inversely and independently associated with residual-specific mortality risk, underscoring the importance of adequate muscular strength to prolong survival.

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Jordan M. Glenn, Jennifer Vincenzo, Collin K. Canella, Ashley Binns and Michelle Gray

Gait speed predicts survival in older adults; however, gait has not been evaluated in late middle-aged (LMA) populations.

Purpose:

Evaluate single- and dual-task gait speeds among sedentary (SED), recreationally active (RA), and masters athlete (MA) LMA adults.

Methods:

Participants were SED (n = 20, age = 61.0 ± 5.8), RA (n = 57, age = 63.5 ± 8.4), and MA (n = 25, age = 57.5 ± 7.9). Two trials of each task (10 m) were completed: habitual speed (HS), maximal speed (MS), dual-task (counting backward from a number by 3) habitual speed (DT-HS), and dual-task maximal speed (DT-MS).

Results:

MA (2.08 ± 0.63 m/s) had significantly (p < .05) greater MS compared with SED (1.94 ± 0.30 m/s) and RA (1.99 ± 0.53 m/s). Similar differences existed for DT-MS (SED = 1.77 ± 0.32 m/s, RA = 1.80 ± 0.51 m/s, MA = 1.89 ± 0.63 m/s). MA had smaller MS and DT-MS changes (difference between MS and DT-MS speeds) compared with RA (12%) and SED (13%).

Conclusion:

Maintaining a competitively active lifestyle increases MS in LMA adults and may support healthy aging.

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Ronald E. Smith and Donald S. Christensen

The role of physical and psychological skills as predictors of performance and survival in professional baseball was studied in a sample of 104 minor league baseball players. Psychological and physical skills were largely uncorrelated with one another and appear to be measuring separate and independent skill domains. Preseason scores on the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) and coaches’/managers’ ratings of the same skills on an ACSI Rating Form each accounted for as much performance variance in batting average (approximately 20%) as did physical skills when differences in the latter were statistically controlled, and the psychological measures accounted for substantially more variance in pitchers’ earned run averages than did the expert ratings of physical skills. The psychological skills measures also predicted athletes’ survival in professional baseball 2 and 3 years after they were obtained. Bayesian hit rate anlayses indicated substantially increased survival predictability over simple base rate predictions.

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Sanna Sihvonen, Taina Rantanen and Eino Heikkinen

Changes in physical activity levels were followed over 5 years and the relationship between baseline physical activity and survival was investigated among residents of Jyväskylä. Baseline interviews were carried out for 109 men and 204 women age 75, and 67 men and 178 women age 80. At the time of the follow-up interviews 5 years later. 23 men and 37 women who were age 75 at baseline and 23 men and 50 women who were age 80 at baseline had died. Activity decreased significantly over the 5-year period in all groups. A greater proportion of women than men decreased their activity level in both age groups. Physical activity was significantly associated with better survival (p = .006) in the 80-year-old women, and a similar significant difference (p = .024) was observed among 75-year-old men. The differences in the survival curves in the other groups, although similar, were not statistically significant due to the small number of subjects and lack of statistical power.

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Emma S. Ariyo

organized activities for children and continuing to the professional ranks. The book is designed to describe the survival forces that athletes face, with frequent risks of injury, blowouts, or disruptive relationships with coaches, teammates, and parents at the youth level. It showcases the history and

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Louise M. Burke

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William A. Pitney