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Alessia Longo and Ruud Meulenbroek

flexibility. This study was set up to examine how movement variability changes in healthy participants during sustained bimanual reaching under controlled precision conditions, in particular with regard to movement time (MT), end-point variability, approximate entropy (ApEn), and standard deviation (SD) of

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Teri Todd, Greg Reid and Lynn Butler-Kisber

Individuals with autism often lack motivation to engage in sustained physical activity. Three adolescents with severe autism participated in a 16-week program and each regularly completed 30 min of cycling at the end of program. This study investigated the effect of a self-regulation instructional strategy on sustained cycling, which included self-monitoring, goal setting, and self-reinforcement. Of particular interest was the development of self-efficacy during the physical activity as a mediator of goal setting. A multiple baseline changing criterion design established the effectiveness of the intervention. The results suggest that self-regulation interventions can promote sustained participation in physical activity for adolescents with severe autism.

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Trampas M. TenBroek, Pedro A. Rodrigues, Edward C. Frederick and Joseph Hamill

The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate how kinematic patterns are adjusted while running in footwear with THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsole thicknesses and (2) determine if these patterns are adjusted over time during a sustained run in footwear of different thicknesses. Ten male heel-toe runners performed treadmill runs in specially constructed footwear (THIN, MEDIUM, and THICK midsoles) on separate days. Standard lower extremity kinematics and acceleration at the tibia and head were captured. Time epochs were created using data from every 5 minutes of the run. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used (P < .05) to determine differences across footwear and time. At touchdown, kinematics were similar for the THIN and MEDIUM conditions distal to the knee, whereas only the THIN condition was isolated above the knee. No runners displayed midfoot or forefoot strike patterns in any condition. Peak accelerations were slightly increased with THIN and MEDIUM footwear as was eversion, as well as tibial and thigh internal rotation. It appears that participants may have been anticipating, very early in their run, a suitable kinematic pattern based on both the length of the run and the footwear condition.

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Scott Ryan Dietrich

Edited by Malissa Martin

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J. Brett Massie, David V. Donnelly and Kimberly L. Ricker

Edited by Tricia Hubbard

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Scott Ryan Dietrich

Edited by Malissa Martin

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Scott L. Bruce and Kyra Dorney

Current literature indicates loss of consciousness occurs in about 10% of concussions. Posturing presentations represent brain injuries and a loss of consciousness. The purpose of this study was to observe video evidence of football-game-related concussions to determine the rate in which a posturing presentation occurs in reported concussion. Over the course of three National Football League and three National Collegiate Athletic Association football seasons, 103 videos of 805 reported concussions met the inclusion criteria; 35 videos demonstrated a posturing presentation, for a rate of 33.98%. Our study indicates that the published statistic regarding loss of consciousness (occurring only about 10% of the time) may be too conservative.

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Takeshi Hirano, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Hiroshi Kinoshita

This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.