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Michael Duncan, Elizabeth Bryant, Mike Price, Samuel Oxford, Emma Eyre and Mathew Hill

This study examined postural sway in children in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions, controlling for body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA). Sixty two children (aged 8–11years) underwent sway assessment using computerized posturography from which 95% ellipse sway area, anterior/posterior (AP) sway, medial/lateral (ML) sway displacement and sway velocity were assessed. Six trials were performed alternatively in EO and EC. BMI (kg/m2) was determined from height and mass. PA was determined using sealed pedometry. AP amplitude (p = .038), ML amplitude (p = .001), 95% ellipse (p = .0001), and sway velocity (p = .012) were higher in EC compared with EO conditions. BMI and PA were not significant as covariates. None of the sway variables were significantly related to PA. However, sway velocity during EO (p = .0001) and EC (p = .0001) was significantly related to BMI. These results indicate that sway is poorer when vision is removed, that BMI influences sway velocity, but that pedometer-assessed PA was not associated with postural sway.

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Akinori Nagano, Shinsuke Yoshioka, Dean Charles Hay and Senshi Fukashiro

The purpose of this study was to test whether a light finger touch on one’s own body (upper legs) reduces postural sway. Ten healthy males participated. In the first part of the study, the participants stood upright with their eyes closed on a force platform while ground reaction force data were collected. Two conditions differing in the placement of the arms and fingers were tested. In the no-touch condition, the participants kept their hands in loose fists. In the finger-touch condition, the participants lightly touched the lateral sides of the upper legs with all fingers. Postural sway measures were calculated from the ground reaction force data. In the second part of the study, the participants stood upright on a pneumatic balance disk while ground reaction force data were collected. Experimental and measurement protocols were identical to those used in the first part of the study. The results showed that light finger touch on the upper legs significantly reduced postural sway on the balance disk up to ~7%. The data from this study suggest that decreased postural sway due to finger contact may improve balance control during other standing tasks.

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Kristina L. Dunn, R. Curtis Bay, Javier F. Cárdenas, Matthew Anastasi, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Richelle M. Williams

Key Points ? Postural control assessment of males between ages 7–22 showed good-to-excellent reliability. ? Sway Balance™ is a reliable tool for measuring postural control. Postural control deficits are common following sport-related injury, and are increasingly being assessed following concussion

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Saud F. Alsubaie, Susan L. Whitney, Joseph M. Furman, Gregory F. Marchetti, Kathleen H. Sienko and Patrick J. Sparto

force platforms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the test–retest reliability of subjects’ postural sway during 24 standing balance tasks, within and between 2 visits occurring 1 week apart. Secondary to this main purpose, we wanted to examine which kinematic variables of postural

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Hitoshi Koda, Yoshihiro Kai, Shin Murata, Hironori Osugi, Kunihiko Anami, Takahiko Fukumoto and Hidetaka Imagita

gravity while walking, and its breakdown means to increase body sway ( Howcroft, Kofman, & Lemaire, 2013 ). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze knee extension strength, toe grip strength, and hand grip strength asymmetry in older adults and to investigate the relationships between each of

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens

serves to counteract the effect of gravity in keeping the CoM within safe limits of the BoS. Previous studies have defined balance as the ability to maintain the body’s CoM within the BoS with minimal sway ( Kinsella-Shaw, Harrison, Colon-Semenza, & Turvey, 2006 ; Lin, Seol, Nussbaum, & Madigan, 2008

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Matthew J. Leineweber, Dominik Wyss, Sophie-Krystale Dufour, Claire Gane, Karl Zabjek, Laurent J. Bouyer, Désirée B. Maltais, Julien I.A. Voisin and Jan Andrysek

This study evaluated the effects of intense physical exercise on postural stability of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Center of pressure (CoP) was measured in 9 typically developing (TD) children and 8 with CP before and after a maximal aerobic shuttle-run test (SRT) using a single force plate. Anteroposterior and mediolateral sway velocities, sway area, and sway regularity were calculated from the CoP data and compared between pre- and postexercise levels and between groups. Children with CP demonstrated significantly higher pre-SRT CoP velocities than TD children in the sagittal (18.6 ± 7.6 vs. 6.75 1.78 m/s) and frontal planes (15.4 ± 5.3 vs. 8.04 ± 1.51 m/s). Post-SRT, CoP velocities significantly increased for children with CP in the sagittal plane (27.0 ± 1.2 m/s), with near-significant increases in the frontal plane (25.0 ± 1.5m/s). Similarly, children with CP evidenced larger sway areas than the TD children both pre- and postexercise. The diminished postural stability in children with CP after short but intense physical exercise may have important implications including increased risk of falls and injury.

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Leah S. Goudy, Brandon Rhett Rigby, Lisa Silliman-French and Kevin A. Becker

functional outcomes in older adults with PD. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the changes in balance, postural sway, and QoL following 6 weeks of SHBR in older adults diagnosed with PD. It was hypothesized that (a) balance and postural sway would improve and (b) specific dimensions of the

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Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira and Renato Moraes

their importance, can disturb control of upright stance, thus causing an increase in postural sway ( Bisson, Lajoie, & Bilodeau, 2014 ; Gimmon, Riemer, Oddsson, & Melzer, 2011 ; Vuillerme, Burdet, Isableu, & Demetz, 2006 ). Although older adults typically exhibit more postural sway than young adults

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Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark

back or sacral area have high reported correlation with force plate measures of balance. 3 , 7 , 8 Although it is acknowledged that the 2 measurement techniques measure subtly different constructs of balance (sway of center of pressure vs sacral acceleration), their relationship suggests that