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D. Clark Dickin and Jacqueline E. Heath

Whole body vibration (WBV) has been shown to improve force and power output as well as flexibility and speed, with improvements suggested to result from reduced electromechanical delays, improved rate of force development, and sensitivity of muscle spindles. Fixed frequency studies on postural control have been somewhat equivocal; however, individualized frequency protocols have shown promising results in other motor tasks. To assess this, 18 healthy young adults experienced three 4-minute WBV sessions with postural control assessed before vibration, after multiple exposures, and during recovery, with altered levels of sensory information available to the participants. Sway velocity, sway path length, and sway area were assessed in each environment. Study findings revealed that stability was impacted following WBV, with more challenging environments eliciting improvements persisting for 20 minutes. When the environment was less challenging, postural stability was impaired; however, the effects dissipated quickly (10-20 min). It was determined that exposure to individualized frequency WBV served to impair postural control when the challenge was low, but resulted in heightened stability when the overall challenge was high and vestibular information was needed for stability.

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Kyung-Min Kim, Joo-Sung Kim, Jeonghoon Oh, and Dustin R. Grooms

quantifying sensory dependence by utilizing sway-referenced conditions. Specifically, the SOT engages a sway-referenced support condition to knockdown the somatosensory system and a sway-referenced vision (SRV) condition to knockdown the visual system. The SOT provides a standardized assessment of sensory

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Daniel G. Miner, Brent A. Harper, and Stephen M. Glass

, stable standing surface (equivalent to firm); Sway Ref, sway-referenced standing surface. Table 2 Bland–Altman 95% LOA Analysis LOA Model Bias ± SD SEM LOA (low) LOA (high) SOT1 (EO, Stable) vs Bsway1 (EO, Firm)  Sway Index, deg 0.01 ± 0.14 0.04 −0.28 0.29  ES 0.12 ± 1.98 0.51 −3.75 4.00  COG A95, cm 2

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Kyoungyoun Park, Thomas Ksiazek, and Bernadette Olson

tests (χ 2 showed no significant differences between male and female). Lower visual memory scores associated with greater sway in 3 of 6 SOT conditions:  • Visual memory and postural sway with eyes closed ( r  = .59, P  < .001, and r  = .47, P  = .01)  • Visual memory and sway referenced vision

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Hananeh Younesian, Nader Farahpour, Mehrdokht Mazde, Martin Simoneau, and Katia Turcot

: 10432171 doi:10.1016/S1056-8727(99)00032-X 10.1016/S1056-8727(99)00032-X 27. Horak FB , Dickstein R , Peterka RJ . Diabetic neuropathy and surface sway-referencing disrupt somatosensory information for postural stability in stance . Somatosens Mot Res . 2002 ; 19 ( 4 ): 316 – 326 . PubMed ID

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Cédrick T. Bonnet

postural control. In other studies, investigators studied how a moving visual environment ( Laurens et al., 2010 ) and/or a sway-referenced platform ( Alahmari, Marchetti, Sparto, Furman, & Whitney, 2014 ) or the proximity of the visual environment ( Bonnet et al., 2010 ) could influence postural control