Zinc (Zn) loss from sweat of 9 male and 9 female athletes exercising under hot (35°C, HE) and neutral (25°C, ME) conditions was examined. Subjects exercised at 50% VO2max on a cycle ergometer for 1 hr during each trial. Cell-free sweat samples were analyzed for Zn by atomic absorption spectro-photometry. There was a significant interaction of time, gender, and temperature for whole-body sweat rates (WBSR). WBSR for males were higher during both trials and at each time. WBSR from the second half of exercise were higher than those from the first half for both sexes and temperature conditions. Sweat Zn concentration was higher in the NE than in the HE, but when the sweat rates were included, the rate of Zn loss was no different between HE and NE. Zn concentration of the sweat for the first half of exercise was over twice that of the second half. Sweat Zn concentration of the men was no different than that of the women; however, due to greater sweat rate, men had significantly higher Zn losses. Although total Zn losses are estimated to be relatively low compared to the RDA. exercise at moderate intensities may increase surface Zn losses.
Kevin Tipton, Nancy R. Green, Emily M. Haymes and Mary Waller
Steve H. Faulkner, Iris Broekhuijzen, Margherita Raccuglia, Maarten Hupperets, Simon G. Hodder and George Havenith
with no performance feedback other than the accumulated work done, target workload, and a graphical representation of fluctuations in power output. Participants were allowed to drink water ad libitum, with the total volume consumed recorded to allow for calculation of sweat loss. During the warm-up and
Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro
The collection of athletes’ sweat during training or competition is a common practice in sports science. Sodium ([Na + ]), potassium ([K + ]), and/or chloride ([Cl − ]) concentrations are measured to estimate athletes’ sweat electrolyte losses to determine electrolyte balance or inform personalized
Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet
∼2% of their body mass (BM) through sweating ( Baker et al., 2007 ; Dougherty et al., 2006 ; Edwards et al., 2007 ; Linseman et al., 2014 ; McGregor et al., 1999 ; Owen et al., 2013 ; Palmer et al., 2017 ). The equipment worn by ice hockey players becomes problematic as sweat rates increase to
James M. Green, Phil A. Bishop, Ian H. Muir and Richard G. Lomax
Sweat lactate is at least partly derived from eccrine-gland metabolism. This study examined whether potential age-associated changes in sweat rate and skin blood flow influence sweat lactate. Six middle-aged (51.5 ± 3.8 years) and 6 younger (25.8 ± 1.5 years) men similar in VO2max, height, weight, percent body fat, and surface area completed constant-load (CON) cycling and interval-cycling (INT) trials. During each trial, sweat and blood were analyzed for lactate concentration at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Sweat rates and estimated total lactate secretion were not significantly different (p > .05) between trials or groups. Blood-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between groups during CON but were significantly higher in younger men at 35 min and 45 min during INT. Sweat-lactate concentrations were not significantly different (p > .05) between groups during CON or INT. These results suggest that differences in eccrine-gland metabolism between young and middle-aged men are minimal.
Keith C. DeRuisseau, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Emily M. Haymes and Regina G. Sharp
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at ~50% V̇O2peak in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 °C, RH = 51%). Sweat samples were collected for 15 min during each of four 30-min exercise bouts. No significant differences were observed between males’ and females’ sweat iron or zinc concentrations or losses. Sweat iron concentrations decreased significantly between 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweating rates increased significantly from 30 to 60 min and remained constant during the second hour. Sweat iron losses were significantly lower during the second hour (0.042 mg/m2/h) than the first hour of exercise (0.060 mg/m2/h). Sweat zinc concentrations also decreased significantly over the 2-hour exercise bout. Dietary intakes of iron and zinc were not significantly correlated to sweat iron and zinc concentrations. Sweat iron and zinc losses during 2 hours of exercise represented 3% and 1% of the RDA for iron and 9% and 8% of the RDA for zinc for men and women, respectively. These results suggest a possible iron conservation that prevents excessive iron loss during prolonged exercise.
Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano
that can be used to optimize performance and safety when exercising in the heat. 1 Higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature are observed following heat acclimation, and these adaptations decrease the risk of heat illness and increase
Simone D. Henkin, Paulo L. Sehl and Flavia Meyer
Because swimmers train in an aquatic environment, they probably do not need to sweat as much as runners who train on land and, therefore, should not develop the same magnitude of sweating adaptations.
To compare sweat rate and electrolyte concentration in swimmers, runners and nonathletes.
Ten swimmers (22.9 ± 3.1 years old), 10 runners (25 ± 2.9 y) and 10 nonathletes (26.5 ± 2.2 y) cycled in the heat (32°C and 40% relative humidity) for 30 min at similar intensity relative to their maximal cycle test. Sweat volume was calculated from the difference of their body mass before and after cycling, since they were not allowed to drink. Sweat was collected from the scapula using absorbent patch placed on the skin that was cleaned with distilled water. After cycling, the patch was transferred to syringe and the sample was obtained when squeezing it to a tube. Concentration of sodium ([Na+]), chloride ([Cl–]) and potassium ([K+]) were analyzed using an ion selector analyzer.
The sweat volume, in liters, of swimmers (0.9 ± 0.3) was lower (P < .05) than that of runners (1.5 ± 0.2) and similar to that of nonathletes (0.6 ± 0.2). [Na+] and [Cl-], in mmolL-1, of swimmers (65.4 ± 5.5 and 61.2 ± 81), and nonathletes (67.3 ± 8.5 and 58.3 ± 9.6) were higher (P < .05) than those of runners (45.2 ± 7.5 and 38.9 ± 8.3). [K+] was similar among groups.
The lower sweat volume and higher sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] of swimmers, as compared with runners, indicate that training in the water does not cause the same magnitude of sweating adaptations.
Ronald J. Maughan and Susan M. Shirreffs
Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and to consume sufficient amounts of appropriate fluids during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Available evidence suggests that many athletes begin exercise already dehydrated to some degree, and although most fail to drink enough to match sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatremia. Some simple advice can help athletes assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment, and individual needs. Preexercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity, or osmolality. Change in hydration during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass that occurs during a bout of exercise. Sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples, but athletes losing large amounts of salt are likely to be aware of the taste of salt in sweat and the development of salt crusts on skin and clothing where sweat has evaporated. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of preexercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte, and substrate needs before, during, and after a period of exercise. Strategies will vary greatly between individuals and will also be influenced by environmental conditions, competition regulations, and other factors.
Daryll B. Bullen, Mary L. O'Toole and Karen C. Johnson
The purpose of this study was to compare daily calcium (Ca) losses in sweat (S) and urine (U) on an exercise day (E) with losses on the preceding day (i.e., a rest day) during which no exercise (NE) was performed. Ten healthy male volunteers (23.9 ± 3.2 years) performed a single bout of moderate exercise (running at 80% HRmax) for 45 min in a warm (32 °C, 58% relative humidity) environment on E. When E and NE were compared, neither Ca intake (1,232 ± 714 and 1,148 ±482 mg, respectively) nor urinary Ca excretion (206 ± 128 and 189 ± 130 mg, respectively) were different (p > .05). Sweat Ca losses during the exercise bout averaged 45 ± 12 mg. The results indicate that, although a small amount of Ca is lost in sweat during 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise, measured (sweat and urine losses combined) Ca losses (251 ±128 and 189 ± 130 mg) were not different (p > .05) between days (E and NE, respectively). These data suggest that moderate exercise for up to 45 min in a warm, humid environment does not markedly increase Ca intake requirements.