(Physicool™, London, UK), has been reliably shown to induce improvements in TS and comfort, during fixed intensity (FI) 11 and self-paced exercise 3 , 8 , 9 in the heat. However, it has also been shown to induce heat gain responses (ie, vasoconstriction 11 ) and alter sweating responses, 12 in the latter
Martin J. Barwood, Joe Kupusarevic and Stuart Goodall
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen Wallman and Georgina Kent
neural drive, 4 , 5 and impaired energy efficiency. 6 , 7 A critical core temperature of 39.5°C to 40°C has also been reported to result in premature fatigue. 1 , 4 Furthermore, although excessive sweating during exercise in the heat is effective at cooling the body, it results in an earlier onset of
Coen C.W.G. Bongers, Dominique S.M. ten Haaf, Nicholas Ravanelli, Thijs M.H. Eijsvogels and Maria T.E. Hopman
develop heat-related illnesses. 2 Sweating is the largest modifiable heat loss avenue to mitigate the rise in CBT. Previous studies have proposed that sex independently alters the CBT and sweating response to exercise 3 ; however, it may simply be a result of morphological characteristics and heat
Lindsay B. Baker, Kelly A. Barnes, Bridget C. Sopeña, Ryan P. Nuccio, Adam J. Reimel and Corey T. Ungaro
The collection of athletes’ sweat during training or competition is a common practice in sports science. Sodium ([Na + ]), potassium ([K + ]), and/or chloride ([Cl − ]) concentrations are measured to estimate athletes’ sweat electrolyte losses to determine electrolyte balance or inform personalized
Ronald J. Maughan, Lisa A. Dargavel, Rachael Hares and Susan M. Shirreffs
This study investigated fluid and electrolyte balance in well-trained male and female swimmers during 2 training sessions. Participants were 17 nationally ranked swimmers measured during a period of intensive training. Sweat loss was assessed from changes in body mass after correction for fluid intake and urine collection. Sweat composition was measured from waterproof absorbent patches applied at 4 skin sites. Air and pool-water temperatures were 36 °C and 27.4 °C, respectively. Training lasted 105 min in each session. All measured variables were similar on the 2 testing days. Mean sweat-volume loss was 548 ± 243 ml, and mean sweat rate was 0.31 ± 0.1 L/hr. Mean fluid intake was 489 ± 270 ml. Mean body-mass loss was 0.10 ± 0.50 kg, equivalent to 0.1% ± 0.7% dehydration. Mean pretraining urine osmolality was 662 ± 222 mOsm/kg, which was negatively associated with both mean drink volume consumed (p = .044, r 2 = .244) and mean urine volume produced during training (p = .002, r 2 = .468). Mean sweat Na+, K+, and Cl− concentrations (mmol/L) were 43 ± 14, 4 ± 1, and 31± 9, respectively; values were not different between males and females and were not different between days except for a marginal difference in K+ concentration. The average swimmer remained hydrated during the session, and calculated sweat rates were similar to those in previous aquatic studies.
Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet
∼2% of their body mass (BM) through sweating ( Baker et al., 2007 ; Dougherty et al., 2006 ; Edwards et al., 2007 ; Linseman et al., 2014 ; McGregor et al., 1999 ; Owen et al., 2013 ; Palmer et al., 2017 ). The equipment worn by ice hockey players becomes problematic as sweat rates increase to
James M. Green, Phil A. Bishop, Ian H. Muir and Richard G. Lomax
Sweat lactate is at least partly derived from eccrine-gland metabolism. This study examined whether potential age-associated changes in sweat rate and skin blood flow influence sweat lactate. Six middle-aged (51.5 ± 3.8 years) and 6 younger (25.8 ± 1.5 years) men similar in VO2max, height, weight, percent body fat, and surface area completed constant-load (CON) cycling and interval-cycling (INT) trials. During each trial, sweat and blood were analyzed for lactate concentration at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 60 min. Sweat rates and estimated total lactate secretion were not significantly different (p > .05) between trials or groups. Blood-lactate concentrations were not significantly different between groups during CON but were significantly higher in younger men at 35 min and 45 min during INT. Sweat-lactate concentrations were not significantly different (p > .05) between groups during CON or INT. These results suggest that differences in eccrine-gland metabolism between young and middle-aged men are minimal.
Keith C. DeRuisseau, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Emily M. Haymes and Regina G. Sharp
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 2-hour exercise bout on sweat iron and zinc concentrations and losses in males and females. Nine male and 9 female recreational cyclists exercised at ~50% V̇O2peak in a temperate environment (Ta = 23 °C, RH = 51%). Sweat samples were collected for 15 min during each of four 30-min exercise bouts. No significant differences were observed between males’ and females’ sweat iron or zinc concentrations or losses. Sweat iron concentrations decreased significantly between 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweating rates increased significantly from 30 to 60 min and remained constant during the second hour. Sweat iron losses were significantly lower during the second hour (0.042 mg/m2/h) than the first hour of exercise (0.060 mg/m2/h). Sweat zinc concentrations also decreased significantly over the 2-hour exercise bout. Dietary intakes of iron and zinc were not significantly correlated to sweat iron and zinc concentrations. Sweat iron and zinc losses during 2 hours of exercise represented 3% and 1% of the RDA for iron and 9% and 8% of the RDA for zinc for men and women, respectively. These results suggest a possible iron conservation that prevents excessive iron loss during prolonged exercise.
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant Landers, Karen E. Wallman and Jacinta Saldaris
This study examined the physiological effects of crushed ice ingestion before steady state exercise in the heat. Ten healthy males with age (23 ± 3 y), height (176.9 ± 8.7 cm), body-mass (73.5 ± 8.0 kg), VO2peak (48.5 ± 3.6 mL∙kg∙min-1) participated in the study. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 55% of their VO2peak preceded by 30 min of precooling whereby 7 g∙kg-1 of thermoneutral water (CON) or crushed ice (ICE) was ingested. The reduction in Tc at the conclusion of precooling was greater in ICE (-0.9 ± 0.3 °C) compared with CON (-0.2 ± 0.2 °C) (p ≤ .05). Heat storage capacity was greater in ICE compared with CON after precooling (ICE -29.3 ± 4.8 W∙m-2; CON -11.1 ± 7.3 W∙m-2, p < .05). Total heat storage was greater in ICE compared with CON at the end of the steady state cycle (ICE 62.0 ± 12.5 W∙m-2; CON 49.9 ± 13.4 W∙m-2, p < .05). Gross efficiency was higher in ICE compared with CON throughout the steady state cycle (ICE 21.4 ± 1.8%; CON 20.4 ± 1.9%, p < .05). Ice ingestion resulted in a lower thermal sensation at the end of precooling and a lower sweat rate during the initial stages of cycling (p < .05). Sweat loss, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion and thirst were similar between conditions (p > .05). Precooling with crushed ice led to improved gross efficiency while cycling due to an increased heat storage capacity, which was the result of a lower core temperature.
Yasuki Sekiguchi, Erica M. Filep, Courteney L. Benjamin, Douglas J. Casa and Lindsay J. DiStefano
that can be used to optimize performance and safety when exercising in the heat. 1 Higher sweat rate, plasma volume expansion, decreased heart rate, and lower internal body temperature are observed following heat acclimation, and these adaptations decrease the risk of heat illness and increase