propulsion in front crawl. 13 Hence, it is expected that the forces produced will be strongly associated with swimming performance. 14 Nevertheless, measuring the forces exerted in the water remains elusive for the swimming science community. 15 Several methodologies have been proposed, such as tethered
Pedro G. Morouço, Tiago M. Barbosa, Raul Arellano and João P. Vilas-Boas
Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro, Pedro G. Morouço and Raúl Arellano
Performance in competitive swimming is measured through the time spent to complete an established distance. Muscular force production while stroking, 1 swimming technique, 2 and aerobic/anaerobic energy production 3 are determinants in competitive swimming performance. Over short distances, the
Scott P. McLean and Richard N. Hinrichs
This study investigated the relationship of gender and buoyancy to sprint swimming performance. The center of buoyancy (CB) and center of mass (CM) were measured using reaction board principles. Performance was evaluated as the time needed to complete the middle 13.7 m of a 22.9-m sprint for kicking and swimming trials. Nineteen female swimmers (mean ± SD, 21.9 ± 3.2 years) had significantly more body fat (24.1 ± 4.5%) than 13 male swimmers (21.7 ± 4.2 years, 14.8 ± 5.0%). Males swam and kicked significantly faster (p < .01) than females. Percent body fat, upper body strength, the distance between the CB and CM (d), and the buoyant force measured in 3 body positions all met the criteria for entrance into a regression equation. When gender was not controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 70% of the variance in swim time (p < .008). When gender was controlled in the analysis, these variables accounted for 45% of the variance in swim time (p = .06). Percent body fat accounted for the largest amount variance in both regression analyses (39%, p < .001; 18%, p = 0.02, respectively). Upper body strength accounted for 14% of the variance in swim time (p = .006) when gender was not controlled but only 4% when gender was controlled (p = .27). The distance d as measured in a body position with both arms raised above the head was the buoyancy factor that accounted for the greatest amount of variance in swim time (6% when gender was not controlled, p = .06, 10%; when gender was controlled, p = .07). Percent body fat, d, and the buoyant force accounted for no significant amount of variance in kick time. These data suggested that a swimmer’s buoyancy characteristics did have a small but important influence on sprint swimming performance.
Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann and Christoph Clephas
85% to 90% of 1RM (except for deadlift), as well as explosive DLST, was performed. The overall training frequency was similar to that of the control group. Measurements Swimming Performance The swimming performance was assessed by a modified 4 × 400-m incremental swimming protocol as recommended by
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana
Competitive swimming is a type of cyclic sports activity performed with the aim of covering any given distance as fast as possible ( 1 ). In this context, many researchers are constantly trying to establish and classify factors associated with optimal swimming performance. Therefore, it remains
Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
sports science because a number of pioneering publications proposed WBV as an effective training method to increase lower-body strength (LBS) and lower-body power (LBP) and, potentially, athletic performance. 5 – 8 The influence of LBP in short-distance swimming performance is well documented. 9 – 12
Ozcan Esen, Ceri Nicholas, Mike Morris and Stephen J. Bailey
3 − supplementation 11 – 13 might be expected to enhance swimming performance. Moreover, swimming exercise provokes exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia, 15 and, as the ergogenic effect of NO 3 − supplementation appears to be more pronounced in hypoxia compared with normoxia, 16 likely as a
Courtney J. McGowan, David B. Pyne, Kevin G. Thompson, John S. Raglin and Ben Rattray
An exercise bout completed several hours prior to an event may improve competitive performance later that same day.
To examine the influence of morning exercise on afternoon sprint-swimming performance.
Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 male, mean age 19 ± 3 y; 6 female, mean age 17 ± 3 y) completed a morning session of 1200 m of variedintensity swimming (SwimOnly), a combination of varied-intensity swimming and a resistance-exercise routine (SwimDry), or no morning exercise (NoEx). After a 6-h break, swimmers completed a 100-m time trial.
Time-trial performance was faster in SwimOnly (1.6% ± 0.6, mean ± 90% confidence limit, P < .01) and SwimDry (1.7% ± 0.7%, P < .01) than in NoEx. Split times for the 25- to 50-m distance were faster in both SwimOnly (1.7% ± 1.2%, P = .02) and SwimDry (1.5% ± 0.8%, P = .01) than in NoEx. The first 50-m stroke rate was higher in SwimOnly (0.70 ± 0.21 Hz, mean ± SD, P = .03) and SwimDry (0.69 ± 0.18 Hz, P = .05) than in NoEx (0.64 ± 0.16 Hz). Before the afternoon session, core (0.2°C ± 0.1°C [mean ± 90% confidence limit], P = .04), body (0.2°C ± 0.1°C, P = .02), and skin temperatures (0.3°C ± 0.3°C, P = .02) were higher in SwimDry than in NoEx.
Completion of a morning swimming session alone or together with resistance exercise can substantially enhance sprint-swimming performance completed later the same day.
Courtney J. McGowan, David B. Pyne, Kevin G. Thompson and Ben Rattray
Targeted passive heating and completion of dryland-based activation exercises within the warm-up can enhance sprint freestyle performance. The authors investigated if these interventions would also elicit improvements in sprint breaststroke swimming performance.
Ten national and internationally competitive swimmers (~805 FINA (Fédération internationale de natation) 2014 scoring points; 6 men, mean ± SD 20 ± 1 y; 4 women, 21 ± 3 y) completed a standardized pool warm-up (1550 m) followed by a 30-min transition phase and a 100-m breaststroke time trial. In the transition phase, swimmers wore a conventional tracksuit and remained seated (control) or wore tracksuit pants with integrated heating elements and performed a 5-min dryland-based exercise routine (combo) in a crossover design.
Performance in the 100-m time trial (control: 68.6 ± 4.0 s, combo: 68.4 ± 3.9 s, P = .55) and start times to 15 m (control: 7.3 ± 0.6 s; combo: 7.3 ± 0.6 s; P = .81) were not different between conditions. It was unclear (P = .36) whether combo (–0.12°C ± 0.19°C [mean ± 90% confidence limits]) elicited an improvement in core temperature maintenance in the transition phase compared with control (–0.31°C ± 0.19°C). Skin temperature immediately before commencement of the time trial was higher (by ~1°C, P = .01) within combo (30.13°C ± 0.88°C [mean ± SD]) compared with control (29.11°C ± 1.20°C). Lower-body power output was not different between conditions before the time trial.
Targeted passive heating and completion of dryland-based activation exercises in the transition phase does not enhance sprint breaststroke performance despite eliciting elevated skin temperature immediately before time trial commencement.
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini
performance could help the coaches to develop long-term periodization between the Olympic cycles and establish guidelines for talent identification. The age of peak swimming performances for OW swimmers of the 10 elite fastest finishers in several international competitions between 2000–2012 was 22.4 ± 1