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Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Espen Tønnessen, Morten Eklund, and Øyvind Sandbakk

.paralympic.org/swimming/classification). Able-bodied world-class swimmers have reported annual training volumes between 800 and 1200 hours, of which 600 to 900 hours are spent in the water with a swimming distance in the range of 1500 to 3600 km. 1 , 2 These are among the highest annual training hours reported for endurance athletes, which

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Takao Mise, Yosuke Mitomi, Saki Mouri, Hiroki Takayama, Yoshitomo Inoue, Mamoru Inoue, Hiroshi Akuzawa, and Koji Kaneoka

attributed to anatomical, biomechanical, and physiological differences between male and female athletes. 19 , 20 A previous study suggested that female swimmers had shorter limbs, which increased the number of strokes over the same swimming distance, thereby increasing shoulder joint stress. 20 However

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Daniel B. Hollander and Edmund O. Acevedo

The unique experience of swimming the English Channel is a test of mind and body to overcome multiple challenges. The purpose of this study was to examine psychological characteristics and reflective meanings of these swimmers. Eight English Channel swimmers were interviewed. Inductive and deductive analyses compared interviews and interpretations with the coinvestigator and swimmers. Themes included the cognitive orientations of mental toughness, while cognitive strategies included goal setting, Compartmentalization of time, and/or swimming distance, and self-regulation. Descriptions of the experience of the swim included an ease of swimming at the beginning, more aversive experiences in the middle, and a paradoxical euphoria and letdown upon completion of the swim. Several swimmers noted the perception of increased occupational effectiveness, self-confidence, and an awareness of unlimited potential. Whereas, other swimmers noted a more competitive post event focus. Reflective experiences supported Maslow’s notion that the meaning associated with a peak experience augments daily life.

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Iñigo Mujika, Luis Villanueva, Marijke Welvaert, and David B. Pyne

swimming a season best on major competition performance. The trivial effect of Time sb-ls on ΔPerf was further confirmed by the predictive modeling. Indeed, the predictive accuracy of the generalized linear mixed model, which included ΔPerf, rank at the major event, swimming stroke, swimming distance, and

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Cesar L. Teixeira, Paulo V. Mezzaroba, and Fabiana A. Machado

distances (CV = 100, 200, and 400 m) using the slope of the linear regression between swimming distances and time taken to complete each performance. 16 The order in which the participants performed each distance was randomized. For the application of PBM, we used the LED (THOR-LX2®; THOR Photomedicine Ltd

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Moritz Schumann, Hannah Notbohm, Simon Bäcker, Jan Klocke, Stefan Fuhrmann, and Christoph Clephas

stratified after 7 weeks of similar training. External and Internal Training Load During weeks 1 to 7 of similar endurance and strength training, total swimming distance in the experimental group was 182.4 (16.8), 29.6 (5.5), and 12.4 (3.1) km at <75%, 75% to 85%, and >85% V max , respectively. Total

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R. Pla, Y. Le Meur, A. Aubry, J.F. Toussaint, and P. Hellard

the volume swum at each intensity over the total distance. We then corrected the speeds corresponding to each intensity level to account for the swimming distance and rest intervals using Olbrecht’s method. 16 The training out of the water (strength, conditioning, flexibility)—apart from the

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Ann E. Swanson, and Matthew T. Wittbrodt

closed the overall gap in Olympic swimming by 2% (5% in running). Although performance gaps narrow as swimming distance increases, the opposite effect (lowest gap at shortest distance) occurs in running. The magnitude of each biological “advantage” for men is, therefore, not necessarily constant along

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Karini Borges dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Barauce Bento, Carl Payton, and André Luiz Felix Rodacki

individual analysis revealed the adoption of the three coordination models. Feitosa, Correia, Barbosa, and de Souza Castro ( 2019 ) also reported high dispersion to IdC results but in a catchup model. The longest swimming distance used, and consequently, lower SR results (i.e., approximately 37cycles

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Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro, Pedro G. Morouço, and Raúl Arellano

associations. Paired-sample t test was used to assess differences in SR and RPE between 25 m and tethered swimming at zero velocity. The same procedure was performed to compare SR and RPE between each free swimming distance and every tethered swimming condition. The effect sizes ( d ) of the obtained