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Maria Konstantaki, Edward Winter and Ian Swaine


Forward propulsion in freestyle swimming is predominantly achieved through arm action. Few studies have assessed the effects of arm training on arm power and swimming performance, yet there have not been any investigations on the effects of arms-only swimming training on swimming performance and physiological responses to arm exercise.


To investigate the changes in arms-only and full-stroke swimming performance, movement economy and aerobic power after an arms-only swimming training program.


Fifteen male county level swimmers were assigned either to an experimental (ES, n = 8) or control group (CS, n = 7). For six weeks ES performed arms-only freestyle swimming exercises for 20% of their weekly training distance three times per week, whereas CS performed their usual swimming training. Before and after the training program, both groups performed a) two time trials, 186 m using arms-only (186ARMS) and 372 m using full-stroke (372FULL) freestyle swimming, and b) an incremental arm-pulling exercise test. The time to complete the trials was recorded. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak exercise intensity (EIpeak) submaximal oxygen uptake at 60 W (VO2−60) and exercise intensity at ventilatory threshold (VTW) were determined from the exercise test.


After training, ES had improved in 186ARMS (−14.2 ± 3.6%, P = .03), VO2−60 (−22.5 ± 2.3%, P = .04), EIpeak (+17.8 ± 4.2%, P = .03), and VTW (+18.9 ± 2.3%, P = .02), but not in VO2peak (P = .09) or in 372FULL (P = .07). None of the measures changed in CS (P > .05).


Arms-only swimming training at 20% of the weekly training distance is an effective method to improve arm conditioning during the preparatory phase of the annual training cycle.

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Jesús J. Ruiz-Navarro, Pedro G. Morouço and Raúl Arellano

Performance in competitive swimming is measured through the time spent to complete an established distance. Muscular force production while stroking, 1 swimming technique, 2 and aerobic/anaerobic energy production 3 are determinants in competitive swimming performance. Over short distances, the

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Pedro G. Morouço, Tiago M. Barbosa, Raul Arellano and João P. Vilas-Boas

The mainstream procedure to monitor elite swimmers’ performance is to conduct either physiological or biomechanical assessments. With the assessments performed separately, it is challenging to provide a well rounded and holistic insight of the swimmer’s performance (ie, swimming speed). Swimming

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Yuji Matsuda, Yoshihisa Sakurai, Keita Akashi and Yasuyuki Kubo

In swimming, horizontal velocity fluctuations in the whole-body center of mass (CoM) are related to the energy cost. 1 , 2 Furthermore, variations in the CoM velocity, maximal and minimal CoM velocities in swimming direction during a stroke cycle, are related to the swimming performance. 2 , 3

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Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, Marco Bonifazi, Dario Dalla Vedova, John Hart and Ludovic Seifert

Humans exhibit a large repertoire of patterns of locomotion, dependent on whether they are within a terrestrial or aquatic environment, including: walking or running, when on the ground; and at least four swimming strokes, when in water. According to an ecological dynamics approach, behavior of the

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Andrew P. Driska

According to USA Swimming ( 2016 ), the national governing body for swimming in the United States, more than 340,000 children swam for a club affiliated with the organization.  Staff in the club development division report that the organization has mandated education for its coach members since

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Matthew R. Hodler

In 2000, fifteen-year-old Michael Phelps swam in his first Olympics, finishing fifth in the 200-meter butterfly in Sydney, Australia, “where swimming is as popular as football and baseball are in America.” 1 The following year, Phelps signed an endorsement deal with swimwear company Speedo to

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) defines open-water swimming (OWS) as any competition that takes place in rivers, lakes, oceans, or water channels. 1 Three distances, 5 km, 10 km, and 25 km (conventional races), are present in World and European championships, while only the 10 km is

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Petros G. Botonis, Ioannis Malliaros, Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Theodoros I. Platanou and Argyris G. Toubekis

suggesting that aerobic metabolism dominates the energy delivery throughout a match-play. In addition, the high occurrence of high-intensity efforts such as dynamic body contacts and swimming sprints 3 , 4 implies that in addition to aerobic, anaerobic metabolism appears to play a decisive role in energy

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Laura Misener, Kerri Bodin and Marika Kay

recently taken a job with Swimming Canada, one of the integrated NSGBs. Katie reaches out to Sam to ask about Swimming Canada’s experience in integrating able-bodied and parasport in that organization. She hopes that in learning about the experience of one well-established integrated organization she will