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Edson Filho, Lael Gershgoren, Itay Basevitch, Robert Schinke, and Gershon Tenenbaum

The present study was an initial attempt to capture and describe instances of shared mental models within a team from the point of view of the team captain. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to describe a range of perceived and shared behaviors aimed at facilitating the overall performance of a college volleyball team from the perspective of the team captain. This behavioral focus is congruent with the need for documenting observable task and team-related coordination mechanisms. Symbolic interactionism, via the use of systematic observations, documental analysis, and semistructured open-ended interviews, was used to gather data from the participant in the form of a case study. Data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) theoretical thematic analysis based on categories derived from Eccles and Tenenbaum’s (2004) Conceptual Framework of Coordination in Sport Teams. Results indicated that the player’s actions were perceived as enhancing proactive information sharing within her team. Therefore, it is suggested that team leaders possess important objective and symbolic roles in the promotion of shared mental models. These results are further discussed in relation to current knowledge of shared mental models in sports. Limitations and directions for future research are outlined.

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Michelle Gilbert

This paper explores how young girls develop trust in their equine partners for the purposes of competitive equestrian sport. I argue that interspecies trust manifests through interactional trust and system trust. Interactional trust, as reflected in the horse-human relationship, is built through joint action and results in symbolic interaction. System trust is made possible through the equine community; it develops through communication in an effort to reduce complexity and uncertainty in society. To encourage and sustain youth participation in competitive equestrian sports both interactional trust and system trust are necessary.

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Lisa M. Rubin and Ron A. Moses

Over 400,000 student-athletes participate in NCAA intercollegiate athletics programs. Due to their dual roles as student and athlete, they have a different college experience than the general student population. Specialized academic centers and resources for student-athletes are part of the reason they are separated and often isolated from the rest of campus. Teams have their own unique academic subculture that influences each student-athlete in his or her academic pursuits. The purpose of this study is to explore the athletic academic subculture among student-athletes at the Division I level and the role the athletic academic center and special resources play in cultivating a separate culture from the campus culture. Symbolic interactionism was the framework used as the lens to view the results of this study in the context of neoliberalism.

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Mark Vermillion

A large amount of research and scholarship has focused on the college and university choice factors of potential student-athletes. The aforementioned research, however, is disproportionately conducted using male or large revenue-generating sport participants. Kankey and Quarterman (2007) addressed these biases by developing a questionnaire and conducting research centered on Division I softball players in Ohio regarding the factors that influenced their college or university choice. Additionally, Kankey and Quarterman advocated more research utilizing different athlete populations to further analyze college and university choice factors among student athletes. As a result, the purpose of this research is to apply Kankey and Quarterman’s (2007) questionnaire to community college softball players in an attempt to determine: What factors are important to community college softball players when deciding to attend their present school? Statistical analyses indicate the most important choice factor to be head coach. Other important factors include personal relationships, financially-based reasons, and academics. The least important factors included media related issues, school infrastructure, and past coaches. Hossler and Gallagher’s (1987) student choice model is combined with Symbolic Interactionism to explain results, and provides recommendations for college sport practitioners.

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Daniel G. Renfrow, Terrence L. Wissick, and Christopher M. Guard

Drawing on 251 incident reports, this study explores American football fans’ decisions to rush the field to celebrate a victory despite pleas from university officials and the police to abstain. We explore the symbolic interactions through which students defined this situation and acted within it. Our findings characterize this event as series of ongoing interactions wherein meaning and action are continually (re)negotiated. Campus rumors normalized the act of rushing by locating it and the student role within local tradition. Through interactions with other students in the stadium and by drawing on knowledge of prior sports tragedies, fans assessed the risks of participating and selected among lines of action ranging from “going to be with others” and “getting out of the way” to “going with the flow.” Ultimately, however, public address announcements, the loss of bodily control, and the inability to direct other people’s actions aligned competing definitions of the situation into one of emergency. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

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Steven M. Ortiz

methodological position of symbolic interactionism . In H. Blumer , Symbolic interactionism : Perspective and method (pp.  1 – 60 ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall . Carroll , J.L. ( 2001 ). Spouses of high-performing men: A profile of marital adjustment and psychological outcomes . In B

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Kenneth Sean Chaplin and Jeffrey Montez de Oca

. Appadurai , A. ( 1993 ). Patriotism and its future . Public Culture, 5 , 411 – 429 . doi:10.1215/08992363-5-3-411 10.1215/08992363-5-3-411 Billig , M. ( 1995 ). Banal nationalism . London, UK/Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . Blumer , H. ( 1969 ). Symbolic interactionism . Englewood Cliffs, NJ

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Nancy L. Malcom, Shaun Edmonds, Christina Gipson, Caitlyn Hauff, and Hannah Bennett

. Discussion Theoretical Framework: Symbolic Interactionism and the Looking Glass Self We find it helpful to interpret the findings of this study through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism and Cooley’s looking glass self. Developed primarily through the Chicago School of Social Psychology, and

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William V. Massey and Meredith A. Whitley

symbolic interactionism ( Blumer, 1969 ) and pragmatism that shape grounded theory research ( Corbin, 2009 ), while contextualizing the interaction between personal and social narratives ( Smith, 2010 ). Participants Ethical approval was granted prior to the beginning of study activities. Purposeful and

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Jeffrey W. Kassing and Pratik Nyaupane

feelings of awe and wonderment, similar to those experienced by pilgrims at religious shrines” ( Gammon, 2004 , p. 41). We explored this possibility of soccer pilgrimage from the perspective of symbolic interactionism ( Blumer, 1969 ). That is, our intent was to focus on how people have come to define and