The study of sport spectatorship has an increasing focus on the importance of fandom beyond fan violence. Fundamental to understanding fan behavior are the meaningful rituals and emotions experienced by fans. In this paper, I use the theoretical work of Randall Collins to examine the ritualistic outcomes of collective effervescence, emotional energy, and group symbols and solidarity among sport fans. I illustrate these concepts using case study data from participant observation of fans of a U.S. football team, the Pittsburgh Steelers, and content analysis of news articles. I extend Collins’ interaction ritual (IR) theory by taking the group as the unit of analysis and analyzing group solidarity beyond situational interactions and typical sport settings, including the significant life events of weddings and funerals. While critiquing Collins’ (2004) a priori portrayal of sports fans, the analysis advances IR theory, improving its utility for understanding sports fan behavior.
Marci D. Cottingham
Michael A. Malec
In the United States, one connection between sport and politics seemed to present itself during the period of the Gulf War. Although the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) normally proscribes the use of patches on team uniforms, the American flag was a prominent addition to the uniform jerseys of many teams, especially after the United States went to war. A questionnaire was mailed to sports information directors at 152 randomly selected colleges and universities. Eighty-seven usable replies were received and analyzed. Results indicate that institutions which adopted the use of a patriotic symbol tended to be members of Division I of the NCAA or made appearances on regional or national television. National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) institutions and NCAA Division II and III institutions—institutions that appear infrequently on television—tended not to wear patriotic symbols.
Vassilios Ziakas, Christine Lundberg, and Giorgos Sakkas
with the cultural, symbolic, and ritualized nature of events ( Getz & Page, 2016 ). Likewise, the role of symbols in value co-creation has been put forward in the business-marketing literature ( Akaka et al., 2014 ), highlighting their capacity to guide actors in co-creating shared meanings, which
Dr. Thomas Yiannakis
Joseph Maguire, Jack Black, and Becky Darlington
Debates regarding the Olympic Flame Relay oscillate between questions concerning the symbolic value of the Relay and the commodified nature of the Games more generally. While some argue for the potential intercultural understanding that the Flame Relay fosters, others point to the extent to which Olympism is embedded within the practices of commercial companies. Research thus tends to use either ethnographic accounts or media analysis—the former being seen by some as authentic and the latter viewed as capable of capturing the commodified context of such consumption. Attention is given here to its visit to one town and how people experienced the Relay themselves, against its (re)construction in local and national mediated accounts. Data were collected from interviews with those watching the Flame Relay, extensive photographic records, fieldwork observations, and local media coverage of the event. The ritual itself appeared temporary, superficial and contoured by the major sponsors of the Relay. While the Flame had some local significance, claims made for its broader symbolic value appeared muted—people knew less about Olympism and were less moved by its symbolism.
Marsha A. Casselman-Dickson and Mary Lynn Damhorst
The purpose of this study was to determine whether cyclists at different levels of involvement in the sport differ in their use of cycling clothing for role definition A social psychological model provides the theoretical framework for the study of 56 female bicyclists. Lower involved cyclists did not show a tendency to use dress to compensate for lack of achievement in the sport role. In addition, no differences were found between higher involved and lower involved cyclists in their expression of individuality through dress and conforming behavior to other cyclists. Possible intervening factors, such as gender role socialization, subcultural norms and traditions, experience, and achievement motivation, as evidenced in previous and present research, were discussed as to how they may confound applicability of the model.
Ari de Wilde
The bicycle has a unique status as a moniker of several things: a practical piece of transportation, a sporting tool, the imprimatur of modernity, and a symbol of gender and class equity. 1 Women have been part of the bicycling experience since the machine’s invention in the mid-nineteenth century
SeYun Park and Jennifer L. Etnier
exertion). The range of 13 to 16 was the target intensity for this study; however, HR was used as the primary determinant of exercise intensity, and RPE was only used to confirm that this intensity level was perceived as being in the range of “somewhat hard” to “hard.” Symbol Digit Modalities Test The
Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez, and Carlos Ayán
encoding and recall of episodic memory, respectively, with lower scores indicating greater impairment. For the purpose of this study, an adapted version of the FOME for Spanish-speaking populations was used ( La Rue, Romero, Ortiz, Liang, & Lindeman, 1999 ). Symbol digit modalities test The effects of the
Matthew Hodler and Callie Batts Maddox
many cases, the decisions by white-controlled sports franchises and athletic programs to adopt Native American nicknames, imagery, and mascotry were purportedly about honoring them, but were/are rooted in the commodification of Native American signifiers and symbols “that extended the use of colonial