directional symmetry index. As a symmetry index may be used in clinical decisions, it is vital that the measure is consistent. 7 One method of insuring a stable mean symmetry index (SMSI) is to collect a large number of strides, as exemplified by calculating an interlimb symmetry index from all strides
Shane P. Murphy, Zach B. Barrons, and Jeremy D. Smith
Simone Ciacci, Rocco Di Michele, Silvia Fantozzi, and Franco Merni
Kinematic asymmetry is believed to be associated with elevated risk for muscle injury, but little is known about the links between hamstring injuries and asymmetry of sprinting mechanics.
To evaluate the value of kinematic analysis of sprinting for the detection of injury-related asymmetry in athletes with a history of hamstring strain.
Six sub-elite male sprinters, including two who sustained a hamstring strain injury.
Absolute differences between left and right symmetry indices and symmetry angles were both calculated for ground contact time and selected angular displacements. Measurements were acquired at foot strike, during the stance phase, and at toe-off.
At toe-off, injured athletes exhibited greater knee flexion and less hip extension for the injured extremity compared to the uninjured extremity. Symmetry indices for these variables markedly exceeded an established 15% threshold for clinically relevant asymmetry. Each of the uninjured athletes exhibited a high degree of symmetry for all parameters, with mean values for symmetry indices significantly lower than the 15% threshold (P < 0.05).
Kinematic analysis of sprinting asymmetry appears to be valuable for identification of elevated risk for hamstring injury.
Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz, and Thomas Gus Almonroeder
) were identified for each limb. A symmetry index was calculated for each trial by dividing the values of the dominant limb by the nondominant limb. The dominant limb was considered the leg that subjects reported they would use to kick a ball. A symmetry index greater than 1.0 indicated greater loading
Selvin Balki and Hanım Eda Göktas¸
week. Figure 1 —Follow chart of the study. AAROM indicates active assistive range of motion; ACLR, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; KT, Kinesio tape; LSI, the limb symmetry index. Inclusion Criteria The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) having unilateral an anatomic single-bundle ACLR
Alice Judd and Tim Sharp
The single hop for distance (SHD) functional performance test is often used to assess an athlete’s readiness to return to sport (RTS). 1 , 2 There is a consensus that a Limb Symmetry Index (LSI) >85% to 90% is acceptable for RTS to be considered. 3 , 4 Several studies have confirmed the
Yuya Ueda, Takehiko Matsushita, Yohei Shibata, Kohei Takiguchi, Akihiro Kida, Daisuke Araki, Noriyuki Kanzaki, Yuichi Hoshino, Rei Ono, Yoshitada Sakai, and Ryosuke Kuroda
.7) – – – One-leg hop performance Limb symmetry index, % 92.0 (10.0) – – – Knee pain (yes) 17 (4.0%) – – – Anxiety 0.9 (1.3) – – – Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; DB, double-bundle; TAS, Tegner activity scale. Note: Values are presented as mean (SD) for continuous variables and n (%) for nominal
Ling Zhang, Shao-bai Wang, Shuai Fan, Jiling Ye, and Bin Cai
Affected limb Contralateral limb Limb symmetry index P value d Knee extensor strength Concentric peak, N·m 150.1 (64.6) 209.8 (80.7) 71.5 (20.8) .008 0.82 Patellar mobility AP shift, mm −20.9 (3.8) −24.3 (4.6) 86.0 (14.5) .748 0.55 SI shift, mm −26.9 (2.1) −28.6 (3.8) 94.1 (21.4) .020 0.81 ML shift
Hao Meng and Stacey L. Gorniak
) were calculated by the GAITRite software. Peak angular displacement, range of motion (ROM), and approximate entropy of angular displacement data of the hips and knees were calculated. Symmetry index (SI) for swing phase (%GC), stance phase (%GC), single support phase (%GC), peak angular displacement
Pier Paolo Mariani, Luca Laudani, Jacopo E. Rocchi, Arrigo Giombini, and Andrea Macaluso
to make a further attempt if the MVIC of their last trial exceeded that of previous trials. Statistical Analysis Side-to-side symmetry was quantified for each isometric MVIC test using the limb symmetry index (LSI), which was calculated as the ratio between the involved and uninvolved limb expressed
Sho Mitomo, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Shunsuke Ohji, Takehiro Ohmi, Toshiyuki Ohara, Hideyuki Koga, and Kazuyoshi Yagishita
patients who underwent ACLR. 12 Recently, return times have been delayed to ensure sufficient quadriceps strength to return to sports. 12 The limb symmetry index (LSI) of the isokinetic knee extension strength (IKE), which is calculated as the ratio of the values of the nonsurgical and surgical limbs, is