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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

total raw HRV spectral power ( Burr, 2007 ). The ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) could be used to quantify the relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities (sympathovagal balance; Pagani et al., 1986 ). Increased sympathovagal balance was considered a reflection of sympathetic

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Alexei Wong, Arturo Figueroa, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Oksana Chernykh and Song-Young Park

low parasympathetic (vagal) and high sympathetic activity, leading to an increased sympathovagal balance (the relationship between sympathetic and vagal activity) ( Cohen et al., 2000 , 2001 ; Furlan et al., 2005 ; Martínez-Lavín, Hermosillo, Rosas, & Soto, 1998 ). HRV indexes in the frequency

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Julia C. Orri, Elizabeth M. Hughes, Deepa G. Mistry and Antone Scala

early stages of hypertension. The changes in sympathovagal balance seen with maximal exercise return to the baseline quicker in individuals with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. We found a positive relationship between VO 2 max and α1/α2 during exercise, suggesting greater cardiac autonomic function

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Gregory Severino, Marcos Sanchez-Gonzalez, Michelle Walters-Edwards, Michael Nordvall, Oksana Chernykh, Jason Adames and Alexei Wong

reflexive muscle contractions ( Cardinale & Lim, 2003 ), simultaneously in a safe and gentle manner. To date, only one study has investigated the effects of WBVT on HRV where decreases in sympathovagal balance due to a concurrent decrease in sympathetic and increase in cardiovagal modulation were observed

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Richard Winsley

Adults’ cardiac autonomic regulation during exercise and in relation to peak oxygen uptake is well understood, however the situation in children is sparsely documented. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis provides a non-invasive tool to research sympathovagal balance. A predominance of parasympathetic mediated modulation is characterized by a greater degree of HRV and vice versa. The available data indicate the child’s response to be similar to that observed in adults; heart rate increase arises through withdrawal of parasympathetic modulation with ensuing increase in sympathetic modulation; aerobic training increases HRV and a positive correlation between peak oxygen uptake and a parasympathetic preponderance.

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Fani Giagkoudaki, Eleftherios Dimitros, Evangelia Kouidi and Asterios Deligiannis


To investigate the effects of an exercise-training program on heart-rate-variability (HRV) indices in individuals with Down syndrome (DS).


Controlled clinical trial.


10 people with DS, age 24.2 ± 5.1 y (group A), and 10 age-matched healthy sedentary individuals (group B).


At baseline all subjects underwent a clinical examination and an ambulatory 24-h Holter monitoring for the evaluation of cardiac autonomic-nervous-system (ANS) activity by time- and frequency-domain analysis.


After initial evaluation, group A followed a 6-mo exercise-training program and thereafter underwent the same HRV analysis.


At the beginning of the study, group A showed a higher LF:HF ratio than group B, indicating impaired sympathovagal balance, likely because of lesser vagal modulation. Moreover, both time- and frequency-domain indices in group A were significantly lower than in group B. At the end of the study, exercise training was found to improve the sympathovagal balance, mainly by increasing vagal activity, in group A.


The results indicate that individuals with DS have ANS dysfunction that can be improved by exercise’s increasing the parasympathetic modulation.

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Hélcio Kanegusuku, Andréia C.C. Queiroz, Valdo J.D. Silva, Marco T. de Mello, Carlos Ugrinowitsch and Cláudia L.M. Forjaz

The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2−4 sets, 10−4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira and António N. Rebelo

between night-training session days and rest days were found in relation to sympathovagal balance LF/HF ( P  > .05). The CV% and ICC (95% CI) of lnRMSSD are presented in Table  6 . In all cases, the CV% was low (4.21%–6.14%), and the ICC was very large to near perfect (.89–.95), attesting the high