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João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Ekaterina A. Semenova, Hirofumi Zempo, Gabriel L. Martins, Antonio H. Lancha Junior, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Keisuke Shiose, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hisashi Naito, Oleg V. Borisov, Elena S. Kostryukova, Nikolay A. Kulemin, Andrey K. Larin, Edward V. Generozov, Noriyuki Fuku, and Ildus I. Ahmetov

cerebellum of the adult brain, CPNE5 is moderately expressed in the striatum of adult mice that have learned a complex motor task. 22 Alterations in neuronal ensemble activity and synaptic plasticity of the striatum, the foundation for long-term motor learning or motor memory, are highly relevant for

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Robert Chen and Kaviraja Udupa

Several techniques that involve transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to measure brain plasticity noninvasively in humans. These include paired-associative stimulation (PAS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and theta burst stimulation (TBS). Some of these techniques are based the principle of use dependent plasticity or are designed to mimic protocols used to induce long-term potentiation or depression in animal studies. These studies have been applied to certain neurological and psychiatric disorders to investigate their pathophysiology. For example, PAS induced plasticity is enhanced in dystonia and stroke but is reduced in Huntington’s disease and schizophrenia. Furthermore, TMS may be used to modulate brain plasticity and has therapeutic potential in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, dystonia and depression.

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė, and Albertas Skurvydas

hippocampus after a combined CR and exercise intervention; the authors also found that acute stress can upregulate BDNF in the hippocampus. 40 It is well established that BDNF improves cognition through its ability to enhance neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. 15 , 16 As expected, we observed that

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

is primed to produce increased levels of BDNF compared to the resting brain ( Berchtold et al., 2005 ). This may give rise to the ability in athletes to preserve or restore executive function and augment synaptic plasticity. Mild brain injury conditions such as sport-related concussion have similar

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Marco Beato, Stuart A. McErlain-Naylor, Israel Halperin, and Antonio Dello Iacono

; 33 ( 3 ): 615 – 625 . PubMed ID: 30589723 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003011 30589723 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003011 14. Zucker RS , Regehr WG . Short-term synaptic plasticity . Annu Rev Physiol . 2002 ; 64 ( 1 ): 355 – 405 . http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Short-term_synaptic_plasticity

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

mechanisms by which obesity contributes to cognitive impairment are unclear, evidence from neuroimaging studies indicates that increased adiposity is associated with alterations in brain structure and function that typically accompany cognitive deficits. These include reduced synaptic plasticity, 8 reduced

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Janelle Prince, Eric Schussler, and Ryan McCann

): 356 – 362 .PubMed ID: 15079864 doi:10.1002/jnr.20077 15. Farmer J , Zhao X , Van Praag H , Wodtke K , Gage F , Christie B . Effects of voluntary exercise on synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the dentate gyrus of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats in vivo . Neuroscience . 2004

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Junyeon Won, Alfonso J. Alfini, Lauren R. Weiss, James M. Hagberg, and J. Carson Smith

), 162 – 173 . PubMed ID: 8812068 doi: 10.1006/cbmr.1996.0014 Detoledo-Morrell , L. , Geinisman , Y. , & Morrell , F . ( 1988 ). Age-dependent alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Relation to memory disorders . Neurobiology of Aging, 9, 581 – 590 . doi: 10.1016/S0197

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Laura Zlibinaite, Albertas Skurvydas, Sandra Kilikeviciene, and Rima Solianik

individuals. 22 Studies demonstrated that exercise-induced myokines penetrate the blood-brain barrier and stimulate the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has beneficial effects on cognitive and motor functions through its ability to enhance neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. 8

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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt, and Jay L. Alberts

.1037/0278-7393.27.4.907 11486923 10.1037/0278-7393.27.4.907 24. Xu T , Wang S , Lalchandani RR , Ding JB . Motor learning in animal models of Parkinson’s disease: aberrant synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex . Mov Disord . 2017 ; 32 ( 4 ): 487 – 497 . PubMed ID: 28343366 doi:10.1002/mds.26938 28343366 10