over a decade of experience as TPSR practitioners and researchers, literature related to TPSR, other well-established systematic observation instruments, and consultations with a panel of experts ( Wright & Craig, 2011 ). The instrument has been field tested in physical education classes in secondary
Amparo Escartí, Ramon Llopis-Goig, and Paul M. Wright
Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones
The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.
Alan C. Lacy and Paul W. Darst
The purpose of the study was to analyze the teaching/coaching behaviors of winning high school head football coaches during practice sessions. A systematic observation instrument with 11 specifically defined behavior categories was utilized to collect data on behaviors of 10 experienced winning coaches in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area during the 1982 season. Each coach was observed in three phases of the season: preseason, early season, and late season. Segments of the observed practices were classified as warm-up, group, team, or conditioning. Analysis of the data showed that the total rate per minute (RPM) for behaviors was higher in preseason than in either of the other two phases. Four of the 11 defined behavior categories (praise, scold, instruction, positive modeling) had significant differences (.05 level) in RPM between the preseason and the other two phases of the season. No significant differences were found between the early season and the late season phases. The group segment was used most in the preseason, while the team segment was used more of the time in the early season and late season. A lower RPM during the warm-up and conditioning segments indicated less involvement by the head coaches than in the group and team segments of practice.
Gordon A. Bloom, Rebecca Crumpton, and Jenise E. Anderson
A systematic observation analysis was performed on Fresno State men’s basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian over the course of an entire season. Based on Tharp and Gallimore’s (1976) work and recent research on expert coaches’ training techniques (Côté et al., 1995; Durand-Bush, 1996), the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form was created to observe and record Tarkanian’s teaching behaviors and verbal cues. Results showed that tactical instructions was the most frequently occurring variable, representing 29% of the coded behaviors. This behavior was 13% higher than the second highest variable, hustles (16%). Following these two categories were technical instruction (13.9%), praise\encouragement (13.6%), general instructions (12%), scolds (6%), and six other categories with percentages less than 3%. This means that almost one-third of Coach Tarkanian’s practice behaviors relate to teaching offensive and defensive strategies to his team. This differs from the practice sessions of beginner- and intermediate-level coaches, who often focus on teaching fundamental skills to their athletes. A complete description of all 12 categories are provided along with implications for coaches of all levels.
Rosalie Coolkens, Phillip Ward, Jan Seghers, and Peter Iserbyt
. Therefore, recess at school can be seen as a critical period for elementary school children to accrue MVPA. A review of the systematic observation literature in elementary schools showed that the amount of MVPA during recess varies between 44% and 66%. 21 – 25 Boys succeed in spending 50% of the time in
Thomas L. McKenzie
.g., in aquatic and martial arts settings). Nonetheless, systematic observation has disadvantages, including the need for observer training and reliability monitoring and the potential of subject reactivity. We recently identified considerations for selecting observation techniques and instruments and how to
Robert G. Weaver, Aaron Beighle, Heather Erwin, Michelle Whitfield, Michael W. Beets, and James W. Hardin
more active during physical education lessons, 26 although findings in physical education are mixed. 34 , 35 However, this finding is significant as several studies using a focal child systematic observation instrument as an outcome measure for an intervention do not report the number of males or
Jayne M. Jenkins, Alex Garn, and Patience Jenkins
The purpose of this study was to identify what and how preservice teachers observe when peer coaching during an early field experience. Twenty-three male and 14 female preservice teachers trained in peer coaching participated in the study. Coaches observed a peer partner teach five 40-min lessons to small groups of elementary or junior high school students in a semester-long second practicum experience. During observation, coaches completed a Peer Coaching Form that included a praise statement and observation notes. A total of 169 Peer Coaching Forms containing 946 statements were collected and analyzed using traditional, naturalistic methods of inductive analysis. Three themes emerged: (a) systematic observation, (b) theory to practice, and (c) students as individuals. Observation changes occurring across the semester suggest peer coaching needs to occur over an extended period of time emphasizing the role of coach as observer for optimal teacher knowledge development.
Thomas L. McKenzie
Contexts: Systematic Observation Exploring school contexts at the school micro level has required the development of new tools. Of the many ways to assess physical activity (e.g., self-reports, accelerometers, pedometers, heart-rate monitoring), systematic observation has an advantage when considering the
Michael William Beets, Jennifer Huberty, and Aaron Beighle
National and state organizations have called upon afterschool programs (3–6 PM, ASP) to promote physical activity (PA). Few strategies exist that ASPs can use to increase the PA of children enrolled. This study evaluated a policy-level intervention (Movin’ Afterschool, MAS) designed to increase PA through staff implemented policy-level changes and ongoing technical support.
Twelve preexisting community-based ASPs serving 580 children (5–12 yrs, 57% girls) were invited to take part in MAS. Evaluation of children’s PA, staff behaviors (engaged or promote PA, other ASP tasks, general supervising), and environmental features (equipment, organized PA) at baseline (Fall 2010) and postassessment (Spring 2011) were collected using SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth) for boys and girls, separately. Random effects models evaluated changes in PA categories (sedentary, walking, vigorous).
The percentage of boys and girls sedentary decreased by 11.8% and 11.4%, respectively. Girls walking increased by 6.9% while boys vigorous PA increased by 6.5%. Greater increases in vigorous activity were observed as postassessment in organized activities for boys and during indoor activities for girls.
Findings indicate a policy-level approach targeting staff training and ongoing technical support can produce notable increases in PA within the ASP setting.