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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

Background: Systematically evaluate the effects of structured exercise and behavioral intervention (physical activity [PA] alone/PA + diet) on long-term PA in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Systematic search of 11 databases (inception to March, 2017). Randomized controlled trials investigating structured exercise/behavioral interventions in type 2 diabetes reporting PA outcomes ≥6 months were selected. Results: Among 107,797 citations retrieved, 23 randomized controlled trials (including 18 behavioral programs and 5 structured exercise) met inclusion criteria (n = 9640, 43.6% men, age = 60.0 (4.0) y). All structured exercise trials demonstrated increased objective PA outcomes relative to control (pooling was inappropriate; I 2 = 92%). Of 18 behavioral interventions, 10 increased PA significantly, with effect sizes ranging from 0.2 to 6.6 (pooling was inappropriate; I 2 = 96%). After removing 1 outlier, the remaining 17 studies significantly improved PA (pooled effect size = 0.34), although smaller compared with structured exercise. After removing the outlier, meta-regression also revealed significant direct relationships between total contacts (r = .50, P < .01) and more face-to-face counseling (r = .75, P < .001) and increased PA. However, long-term changes in PA and HbA1c were not related. Conclusion: Both structured exercise and  behavioral interventions increased PA in type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were larger for supervised exercise. The effectiveness of behavioral programs was improved when delivery included more extensive and face-to-face contact.

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David A. Ferrer and Rebecca Ellis

Background:

The use of social networking sites to deliver behavioral interventions is becoming more prevalent. The purpose of this review was to systematically evaluate the published research to determine the effectiveness of Facebook-delivered interventions for promoting physical activity behavior change.

Methods:

A search of interventions delivered via Facebook (as the primary delivery method or part of a multifaceted intervention) in which physical activity was the primary or secondary outcome resulted in 8 studies for review.

Results:

Overall, 87.5% of the Facebook interventions reported some type of significant physical activity behavior change (ie, interactions, main effects for time, differences between conditions); however, only 2 of these interventions found this change to be significantly better for the treatment group than the control group.

Conclusion:

Future researchers are encouraged to test the effectiveness of Facebook-delivered physical activity interventions with additional control groups that receive no aspects of the intervention within experimental study designs, more diverse samples, theory-based content with assessment of mediators of behavior change, direct observations of physical activity, and long-term follow-ups. Although based on a small sample of studies, Facebook appears to be a promising delivery method for physical activity interventions.

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Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton and Luke Wolfenden

Background: Identifying factors influencing the implementation of evidence-based environmental recommendations to promote physical activity in childcare services is required to develop effective implementation strategies. This systematic review aimed to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators reported by center-based childcare services impacting the implementation of environmental recommendations to increase physical activity among children, (2) synthesize these factors according to the 14 domains of the “Theoretical Domains Framework,” and (3) report any associations between service or provider characteristics and the reported implementation of such recommendations. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in 6 scientific databases (eg, MEDLINE) and Google Scholar to identify studies reporting data from childcare staff or other stakeholders responsible for childcare operations. Included studies were based on childcare settings and published in English. From 2164 identified citations, 19 articles met the inclusion criteria (11 qualitative, 4 quantitative, and 4 mixed methods). Results: Across all articles, the majority of factors impacting implementation fell into the “environmental context and resources” domain (eg, time, equipment, and space; n = 19) and the “social influences” domain (eg, support from parents, colleagues, supervisors; n = 11). Conclusion: The current review provides guidance to improve the implementation of environmental recommendations in childcare services by addressing environmental, resource, and social barriers.

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Rodney P. Joseph, Kathryn E. Royse and Tanya J. Benitez

Background: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the existing scientific literature on e- and mHealth interventions promoting physical activity (PA) among African American (AA) and Hispanic women. Methods: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines, 5 electronic databases and gray literature sources were searched in August 2017. Inclusion criteria are published in English language peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2017, use of an e- or mHealth delivery strategy to promote PA, primary focus on AA or Hispanic women, and reported PA outcome data. Results: Ten articles met inclusion criteria for review, 6 studies focused on AA women and 4 studies on Hispanic women. The majority (n = 8) were pilot studies; only 2 studies were full-scale randomized controlled trials and both focused on Hispanic women. Six studies (60%) used websites as the primary method of intervention delivery, 3 studies (30%) used text messaging, and 1 study (10%) used the social networking website Facebook. In total, 70% of the studies (n = 7) reported significant within- or between-group differences for at least 1 PA outcome. Conclusions: Findings provide preliminary support for e- and mHealth PA interventions among AA and Hispanic women. However, future large-scale, rigorously designed, randomized controlled trials are needed to further explore their effectiveness among AA and Hispanic women.

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Franco M. Impellizzeri

community in that area with no consideration of the previous literature, no evaluation of the quality of the study from which the information is taken, or no idea of the quality of the studies included in the systematic reviews meta-analysis is a potential shortcoming of social media. Researchers should be

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Emily E. Kruithof, Spencer A. Thomas and Patricia Tripp

blood flow restricted exercise: A systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 ( 8 ): 669 – 675 . PubMed ID: 26463594 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 26463594 10. Pearson SJ , Hussain SR . A review on the mechanisms of blood-flow restriction

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein . Physiol Rep . 2016 ; 4 : 12893 . doi:10.14814/phy2.12893 10.14814/phy2.12893 11. Morton RW , Murphy KT , McKellar SR , et al . A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on

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Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb 21694556 6. Slysz J , Stultz J , Burr JF . The efficacy of blood flow restricted exercise: a systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 : 669 – 675 . doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 10.1016/j.jsams.2015

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

– 85 . PubMed ID: 20190355 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.20.1.80 10.1123/ijsnem.20.1.80 Morton , R.W. , Murphy , K.T. , McKellar , S.R. , Schoenfeld , B.J. , Henselmans , M. , Helms , E. , . . . Phillips , S.M. ( 2018 ). A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of

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Andrea Torres, Bethany Tennant, Isabela Ribeiro-Lucas, Alison Vaux-Bjerke, Katrina Piercy and Bonny Bloodgood

the corresponding research question. Four criteria remained constant to promote consistency across systematic reviews: publication language (English); publication status (ie, peer-reviewed, high-quality report); research type (ie, systematic review, meta-analysis, pooled analysis, report, original