studies investigating aerobic exercises (n = 13), physical activity counseling (n = 4), yoga (n = 1), a combination of exercises (n = 1), and strength exercises (n = 1). The inclusion of different types of exercises in systematic reviews makes it difficult to formulate a conclusion on the topic. Aerobic
Caroline Pereira Santos, Mahara Proença, Tamara dos Santos Gouveia, Crystian Bitencourt Soares de Oliveira, Guilherme Yassuki Tacao, Iara Buriola Trevisan, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, and Dionei Ramos
Ryan Sappington and Kathryn Longshore
The field of applied sport psychology has traditionally grounded its performance enhancement techniques in the cognitive-behavioral elements of psychological skills training. These interventions typically advocate for controlling one’s cognitive and emotional processes during performance. Mindfulness-based approaches, on the other hand, have recently been introduced and employed more frequently in an effort to encourage athletes to adopt a nonjudgmental acceptance of all thoughts and emotions. Like many applied interventions in sport psychology, however, the body of literature supporting the efficacy of mindfulness-based approaches for performance enhancement is limited, and few efforts have been made to draw evidence-based conclusions from the existing research. The current paper had the purpose of systematically reviewing research on mindfulness-based interventions with athletes to assess (a) the efficacy of these approaches in enhancing sport performance and (b) the methodological quality of research conducted thus far. A comprehensive search of relevant databases, including peer-reviewed and gray literature, yielded 19 total trials (six case studies, two qualitative studies, seven nonrandomized trials, and four randomized trials) in accordance with the inclusion criteria. An assessment tool was used to score studies on the quality of research methodology. While a review of this literature yielded preliminary support for the efficacy of mindfulness-based performance enhancement strategies, the body of research also shows a need for more methodologically rigorous trials.
Bernard Liew, Susan Morris, and Kevin Netto
The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of bilaterally symmetrical backpack systems borne on the posterior trunk on walking biomechanics, as backpacks represent the most prevalent method of load carriage in the military and civilian population. A search of electronic databases was performed for studies that only investigated posteriorly-borne backpack carriage during level-grade walking (treadmill and over ground). Methodology of studies was assessed, and both meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were completed. Fifty-four studies were included in this review. In summary, the available literature showed that backpack carriage in walking was associated with an increased trunk flexion angle, increased hip and ankle range of motion, increased vertical and horizontal ground reaction force, increased cadence, and reduced stride length. Several variations in backpack carriage protocols could explain between-study variations in results, including: walking speed, backpack carriage skill level, the use of a hip belt, and posterior displacement of the load away from the trunk. The findings of this systematic review will inform backpack carriage practices in the area of injury risk assessment and physical performance enhancement.
Elissa Burton, Gill Lewin, and Duncan Boldy
The proportion of older people living in our communities is rising and, to live independently, some require assistance from home care services. Physical activity can improve and maintain function, strength, and balance, which are important for those receiving home care. This study reviewed the evidence on physical activity/exercise interventions trialed with older people receiving a home care service. A systematic review of studies published from January 1982 to September 2012, from five databases, was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: aged 65+ years; community dwelling; no dementia diagnosis; receiving home care services; and a physical activity/exercise program. Eight articles were included and results show there were few consistencies between intervention types, groups, outcome measures, and follow-up. Study quality was mixed. Future studies should include pragmatic randomized controlled trials involving home care practitioners and their clients to gain “real-world” knowledge of what interventions are effective and can be delivered within this setting.
Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Gill Lewin, Simone Pettigrew, Anne-Marie Hill, Phil Airey, Liz Bainbridge, and Keith D. Hill
Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.
Colleen A. Cuthbert, Kathryn King-Shier, Dean Ruether, Dianne M. Tapp, and S. Nicole Culos-Reed
Family caregivers are an important health care resource and represent a significant proportion of Canadian and US populations. Family caregivers suffer physical and psychological health problems because of being in the caregiver role. Interventions to support caregiver health, including physical activity (PA), are slow to be investigated and translated into practice.
To examine the evidence for PA interventions in caregivers and determine factors hampering the uptake of this evidence into practice.
A systematic review and evaluation of internal and external validity using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was conducted. Randomized controlled trials or pretest/posttest studies of PA interventions were included.
Fourteen studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Methodological quality of studies and risk of bias was variable. External validity criteria were often not reported. Mean reporting levels were 1) reach, 53%; 2) efficacy/effectiveness, 73%; 3) adoption, 18%; 4) implementation, 48%; and 5) maintenance, 2%.
The lack of reporting of components of internal and external validity hinders the integration of caregiver PA interventions into clinical or community settings. Researchers should focus on standardized outcomes, accepted reporting criteria, and balancing factors of internal and external validity, to advance the state of the science.
Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray, and Julia L. Allan
, beneficial effect on ADL ability than simpler physical activities (i.e., low multitask activities). Several systematic reviews have attempted to investigate physical activity type ( Chou et al., 2012 ; de Vries et al., 2012 ; Giné-Garriga, Roque-Figuls, Coll-Planas, Sitja-Rabert, & Martin-Borras, 2014
Franciele Cascaes da Silva, Rodrigo da Rosa Iop, Patrícia Domingos dos Santos, Lídia Mara Aguiar Bezerra de Melo, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres Filho, and Rudney da Silva
This study aimed to determine the effects of physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs on quality of life of patients with Parkinson’s disease through a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: Medline by PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PEDro. The search strategy included the proposed descriptors in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), associated with a sensitive list of terms to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without year and language restrictions. Fourteen studies were potentially relevant, and these studies were included. Physical-exercise-based rehabilitation programs realized 2–4 times a week, 60 min each session, for 6–12 weeks, and follow-up of 3 months promotes significant positive effects on quality of life in Parkinson’s disease patients at mild to moderate stages and disease duration around 6 years.
Steve Amireault, John M. Baier, and Jonathan R. Spencer
. Methods The conduct and reporting of this systematic review were realized in reference to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement ( Moher, Liberati, Tetzlaff, Altman, & PRISMA Group, 2009 ). Study Eligibility Criteria Studies that examined physical activity
Eishin Teraoka, Heidi Jancer Ferreira, David Kirk, and Farid Bardid
) and Tactical Games Model ( Mitchell, Oslin, & Griffin, 2006 ). In a systematic review on Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR; Hellison & Wright, 2003 ), Pozo, Grao-Cruces, and Pérez-Ordás ( 2018 ) reported an improvement in students’ self-confidence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self