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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros, and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

Background: Systematically evaluate the effects of structured exercise and behavioral intervention (physical activity [PA] alone/PA + diet) on long-term PA in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Systematic search of 11 databases (inception to March, 2017). Randomized controlled trials investigating structured exercise/behavioral interventions in type 2 diabetes reporting PA outcomes ≥6 months were selected. Results: Among 107,797 citations retrieved, 23 randomized controlled trials (including 18 behavioral programs and 5 structured exercise) met inclusion criteria (n = 9640, 43.6% men, age = 60.0 (4.0) y). All structured exercise trials demonstrated increased objective PA outcomes relative to control (pooling was inappropriate; I 2 = 92%). Of 18 behavioral interventions, 10 increased PA significantly, with effect sizes ranging from 0.2 to 6.6 (pooling was inappropriate; I 2 = 96%). After removing 1 outlier, the remaining 17 studies significantly improved PA (pooled effect size = 0.34), although smaller compared with structured exercise. After removing the outlier, meta-regression also revealed significant direct relationships between total contacts (r = .50, P < .01) and more face-to-face counseling (r = .75, P < .001) and increased PA. However, long-term changes in PA and HbA1c were not related. Conclusion: Both structured exercise and  behavioral interventions increased PA in type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were larger for supervised exercise. The effectiveness of behavioral programs was improved when delivery included more extensive and face-to-face contact.

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Alan G. Knuth and Pedro C. Hallal

Background:

In spite of all accumulated scientific knowledge on the benefits of physical activity (PA) for health, high rates of sedentary lifestyle are still observed worldwide. The aim of this study was to systematically review articles on temporal trends of PA and fitness, with emphasis on differences between children/adolescents and adults.

Methods:

An electronic search at the Medline/PubMed database was carried out using the following combination of keywords: temporal trends or trends or surveillance or monitoring and PA or exercise or physical fitness or motor activity or sedentary or fitness.

Results:

By using this strategy, 23,088 manuscripts were detected. After examination, 41 articles fulfilled all inclusion criteria, and were, therefore, included. The data currently available in the literature for adults shows that leisure-time activity levels tend to be increasing over time, while occupational-related PA is decreasing over time. Youth PA seems to be decreasing over time, including a lower level of activity in physical education classes. As a consequence, fitness levels are also declining.

Conclusion:

PA surveillance must be strongly encouraged in all settings and age groups. Special attention must be paid to low and middle-income countries, where PA surveillance is virtually inexistent.

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Franco M. Impellizzeri

community in that area with no consideration of the previous literature, no evaluation of the quality of the study from which the information is taken, or no idea of the quality of the studies included in the systematic reviews meta-analysis is a potential shortcoming of social media. Researchers should be

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Rachel G. Curtis, Dorothea Dumuid, Timothy Olds, Ronald Plotnikoff, Corneel Vandelanotte, Jillian Ryan, Sarah Edney, and Carol Maher

-1651 25599350 4. Itani O , Jike M , Watanabe N , Kaneita Y . Short sleep duration and health outcomes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression . Sleep Med . 2017 ; 32 : 246 – 256 . PubMed ID: 27743803 doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2016.08.006 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.08.006 27743803 5. Jike M

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Emily E. Kruithof, Spencer A. Thomas, and Patricia Tripp

blood flow restricted exercise: A systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 ( 8 ): 669 – 675 . PubMed ID: 26463594 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 26463594 10. Pearson SJ , Hussain SR . A review on the mechanisms of blood-flow restriction

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Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr

:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb 21694556 6. Slysz J , Stultz J , Burr JF . The efficacy of blood flow restricted exercise: a systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 : 669 – 675 . doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.09.005 10.1016/j.jsams.2015

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Matthew Zaremba, Joel Martin, and Marcie Fyock-Martin

; 49 ( 1 ): 95 – 108 . doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0994-1 10.1007/s40279-018-0994-1 4. Slysz J , Stultz J , Burr JF . The efficacy of blood flow restricted exercise: a systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 ( 8 ): 669 – 675 . PubMed ID: 26463594 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust, and James P. Morton

greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey protein . Physiol Rep . 2016 ; 4 : 12893 . doi:10.14814/phy2.12893 10.14814/phy2.12893 11. Morton RW , Murphy KT , McKellar SR , et al . A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on

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Daniel R. Post, William A. Stackhouse, Jennifer L. Ostrowski, Jordan D. Bettleyon, and Ellen K. Payne

without blood flow restriction . J Sport Rehabil . 2020 ; 30 ( 2 ): 300 – 305 . doi: 10.1123/jsr.2019-0403 32717720 16. Slysz J , Stultz J , Burr JF . The efficacy of blood flow restricted exercise: a systematic review & meta-analysis . J Sci Med Sport . 2016 ; 19 ( 8 ): 669 – 675 . PubMed ID

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Deirdre Dlugonski, Lacey Schwab, and Katrina D. DuBose

. 2008 ; 46 ( 2 ): 99 – 110 . 17919713 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.08.003 8. Brown HE , Atkin AJ , Panter J , Wong G , Chinapaw MJM , van Sluijs EMF . Family-based interventions to increase physical activity in children: a systematic review, meta-analysis and realist synthesis . Obes Rev